Mr. Nerboso - Cells Study Guide

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organism

a living thing.

cell

the basic building blocks of all organisms. Within cells the basic functions of organisms (converting food into energy and getting rid of waste) are carried out.

tissue

a collection of similar cells that work together to perform a function.

structure

the parts of a cell.

function

the job that structures are designed to do.

organelle

"little organs" or structures (parts) within a cell that carry out specific functions (jobs) that keep the cell alive.

nucleus

organelle that houses the chromosomes and DNA that direct cell activity, found in plant and animal cells.

nuclear membrane

organelle that surrounds and protects the nucleus, functions to allow certain materials in and out of the nucleus, found in plant and animal cells.

cell membrane

organelle made of a thin outer layer that functions like a gatekeeper allowing certain materials in and out of the cell, found in plant and animal cells

cytoplasm

gel-like fluid that fills the space in between the organelles, found in plant and animal cells

chromosome

genetic structures made of DNA that contain information used to direct cell activity and make new cells, functions like a computer hard drive, found in plant and animal cells.

endoplasmic reticulum

organelle that acts as a transportation system with a network of paths throughout the cell. It moves proteins from one part of the cell to another. Is found in both plant and animal cells.

ribosome

organelle attached to endoplasmic reticulum and make copies of proteins for a cell, found in both plant and animal cells

vacuole

organelle that is a fluid-filled structure that temporarily hold substances needed by the cell, functions like a storage tank, found in plant and animals cells but bigger in plant cells.

mitochondrion

organelle that use oxygen and glucose to transform the energy in food to a form the cell can use through a process called cellular respiration, functions like the power plant of the cell, found in plant and animal cells.

lysosome

organelle that breaks down waste material inside a cell, found in animal cells only.

cell wall

tough outer barrier that protects plant cells and give them shape, functions like the security fence, found only in plant cells.

chloroplast

organelle found in a plant cell that make glucose and oxygen, function like solar panels, found only in plant cells.

chlorophyll

green pigment that captures energy of sunlight and through a chemical reaction (photosynthesis) makes food for the plant, found only in plant cells.

cellular respiration

a process in mitochondria of a cell. O2 is chemically combined with glucose (sugar) to release energy (ATP), CO2, and H2O. Happens in plant and animal cells.

photosynthesis

a chemical reaction where carbon dioxide and water are turned into glucose and oxygen - the simple sugar plants use as food, happens only in plant cells.

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