Unit V Regulars Vocab - Microorganisms & Disease

24 terms by Anetha

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coccus

spherical; like BBS or Dip-n-Dots

bacillus

rod shaped

spirillum

spiral and corkscrew

binary fission

divides and forms 2 daughter cells

conjugation

exchanges genetic (DNA) material between two cells

endospore

thick wall enclosing DNA; remains dormant, can tolerate heat, dryness, and lack of nutrients

pathogen

harmful bacteria capable of causing infections in plants and animals

flagellum

structure used by protists for movement; produces movement in a wavelike motion

pilus (pili)

anchors the bacterium to a surface or other bacteria

plasmid

moves from one cell to another

antibiotic

drugs that block the growth and reproduction of bacteria

virus

a nonliving particle made of proteins, nucleic acids, and sometimes lipids

retrovirus

RNA virus that contains RNA as its genetic information

bacteriophage

viruses that infect bacteria

prion

short for "protein infectious particles"

capsid

protein coat surrounding a virus

lytic infection

a virus enters a bacterial cell, makes copies of itself, and causes the cell to burst

lysogenic infection

a host cell is not immediately taken over

prophage

bacteriophage DNA that becomes embedded in the bacterial host's DNA

vaccine

a preparation of weakened or killed pathogens or inactivated toxins

antigen

any substance that triggers an immune response

vector

animal that transports a pathogen to a human

antibody

protein that either attacks antigens direcly or produces antigen-binding proteins

allergy

overreaction of the immune system to an antigen

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