Archduke Francis Ferdinand
He and his wife Sophie were killed by a Bosnian nationalist, Gavrilo Princip, trained in Serbia. Austria-Hungary decided from this action that they needed to enforce authority and felt threatened by Russia at the time, so they requested, and received, Germany's full support.
President of the U.S; led America through WWI (1914-1918) He attempted to maintain peace and neutrality, but when Germany took it too far, he asked congress to declare war on Germany, saying "The world must be safe for democracy".
was appointed head of the Food Administration. He encouraged Americans to reduce their consumption of meat and wheat, as well as told them to grow "victory gardens" and raise a pig in their homes.
General John J. Pershing
Commander of the American Expeditionary Force. His divisions stopped the Germans at the Marne. He put up training camps in France for U.S troops to be trained in trench warfare before fighting on the western front.
British nickname for the American troops who were untrained, ill-equipped, and far from ready for the difficulties of fighting along the Western Front.
The architect of the Bolshevik revolution in Russia and the first leader of the Soviet Union.
David Lloyd George of Britain, Georges Clemenceau of France, Woodrow Wilson of the U.S, and Vittorio Orlando of Italy, they were the victors of the Great War.
A Western Front General, when German armies broke through on the Western Front on March 21, 1918, he was appointed supreme commander. His optimism was infectious, bringing the Allies to victory upon the German's worst threat.
Czar Nicholas II
was forced to abdicate the throne after months of revolution and riots took place in Russia. His family was executed and czarist rule ended. The Bolsheviks took over, creating a Communist revolution.
Headed the Committee on Public Information, which led the propaganda campaigns to encourage Americans to support the war.
Admiral William Sims
The commander of U.S Naval Forces in European waters.
The American Expeditionary Force, the U.S's army.
In charge of the War Industries Board, he had overall responsibility for allocating scarce materials, establishing production priorities, and setting prices.
Henry Cabot Lodge
Stalled the Treaty of Versailles
neutral country that Germany made plans to cross through to reach France in 1914. They refused free passage to the German troops, who then invaded Belgium, violating their neutrality. Germany brutally captured the city of Liege.
In Italy, it is where the Battle of Caporetto took place.
German and Austrian forces moved in on Russia and were soon forced to move two corps from the Western Front to the Eastern, contributing to the German loss in the Battle of the Marne. The Russian army was unable to break through German lines, causing Russian citizens discontent. In the Russian Revolution, Lenin withdrew Russia from the war.
Germany Began fighting WWI on two fronts, invading France on the West and Russia on the East. IN the First Battle of the Marne, September 6-9, 1914, French and British forces confronted the German army in deep NE France, 30 miles from Paris. The Allied Troops succesfully drove them back. Both sides dug into trenches, making up the next 3 years of battles on the Western Front.
Battle on Southern Front. Italy was the weakest Ally so Germany tried to take it over so they would have access to the Mediterranean. The Allies successfully boxed Germany in, so Germany never took over Italy.
The first large scale battle fought by American soldiers; led by Pershing, U.S forces helped halt the German advances towards Paris. Pershing ordered a counteroffensive to drive the Germans out of the woods that stood as a French memorial place. After 20 days, the Americans prevailed.
Located 10 miles from Paris, it is where the Treaty of Versailles was signed, bringing WWI to an end.
Austria-Hungary, Germany, Ottoman Empire
Russia, France, U.S, Italy, Belgium, and Serbia
Started WWI because they trained a Bosnian nationalist to kill the archduke of Austria-Hungary.
Waters of warfare, location of the German U-boats
near Northern France, it was where the Sedan railroad was located.
The Great War
What World War I was known as during the war
the U.S used this to make their citizens believe Germany was bad to get them to support the war
must fly a neutral flag, no trading or selling of contraband, Warning shot, Search/seize, Rescue survivors
tells you to stop and leave the zone where there was a war ship that would search your vessel for contraband and seize it.
If there were arms dealers, the price of getting caught would be very high. If you are found to be defying some rule, you could be shot down.
"Unrestricted submarine warfare"
After the sinking of the Lusitania, Germany declared that any ship floating in a war zone would be sunk, stating that the neutrality rules didn't count anymore.
May 7, 1915, A German torpedo struck the ship and it sunk in 20 minutes. The loss of the liner aroused the expectation from U.S. citizens for them to declare war, but the U.S clung to neutrality. The Lusitania was carrying contraband for the Allies.
a campaign prior to the U.S's entry into WWI to increase U.S military capabilities and to convince the U.S citizenry of the need for American involvement.
"Peace without Victory"
A speech given by Wilson, saying there should be no victor or loser of the war to avoid post war effect.
A note from Arthur Zimmermann, the German Foreign secretary to Mexico. In the telegram, it stated that in the event of war w/ the U.S, Mexico would be asked to join the war as a German ally and in return Germany would restore Texas, New Mexico, and Arizona to them. Wilson published the note, turning the U.S's public opinion completely towards favoring the war with Germany.
Selective Service Act
6 weeks after the U.S entered the war, Congress passed this act, giving Wilson the power to draft soldiers. It required all men ages of 21-30 to register for military service. Some 10 million men had registered within a few months.
Made it a crime for any person to convey info intended to interfere with the U.S armed forces, prosecution of the war efforts or to promote the success of the country's enemies. Anyone found guilty of such acts would be fined $10,000 and sentenced to 20 years in prison.
reinforced the Espionage Act, imposing harsh penalties on anyone who made fake statements that interfered with the prosecution of the war, insulted or abused the U.S gov't, the flag, the Constitution, or the military.
Treaty of Brest-Litovsk
signed between Germany and Russia concluding Russia's part in the war. Russia never told the other Allied countries that they ended their participation, though.
Wilson's Fourteen Points
A peace proposal made by Woodrow Wilson to ensure a lasting peace in Europe by getting rid of the 4 main reasons we entered WWI in the first place.
League of Nations
An international body designed to prevent offensive wars, the last point in Wilson's 14 points.
parts of the Treaty of Versailles
Germany must leave any occupied land, disarm, pay 33 billion dollars to the Allies, the Allies occupy the Rhine River area, all POWs return, and the League of Nations
3 main tasks of preparedness campaign
Raise a fighting force, Provide food, and control public opinion
steps to raising a fighting force
selective service act passed by congress, acceptance of men from 18-45 and of different backgrounds, training on weapons and physical health
steps to providing food
creation of the Food Administration to regulate the supply and production of food with Herbert Hoover as director, "food will win the war", reduce food consumption with wheatless and meatless days, grow a victory garden, raise a pig in each household, all helping supply the soldiers in the war with food
steps to controlling public opinion
use of propaganda, creation of the Committee on public information, headed by George Creel, which supplied Americans with propaganda depicting how horrible the Germans were, organizations tapping telephones and checking mail for any "spies or traitors" communicating about the war in a way that would interfere with their control of public opinion. was key to make sure soldiers would stay loyal to their country during the war.