chapter 20

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what was the significance of columbus's voyages?

the significance of the voyages was that they brought together the peoples of europe,africa,and the americas

what was the importance of magellans crew completing the voyage?

the importance of the voyage his crew completed was that they were the first persons to circumnavigate the world

what factors helped the spanish defeat the aztec?

the factors that helped the spanish defeat the aztecs were the european diseases that killed millions,and the aztecs had not developed any natural immunity to european disease

how did the spanish treat the peoples they conquered?

the spanish treated the people they conquered badly by forcing them into a system call encomienda which made the natives farm, ranch, or mine for spanish lanlords

what was unique about the spanish colonization of the lands of new mexico?

the unique part about the spanish colonization of the lands of new mexico was that the missions, forts, and small ranches became the headquarters for advancing the catholic religion

what was the long-term consequence of the spanish abolishing the encomienda system?

the long-term consequence of this action was that the united states once again belonged to its original inhabitants for the next 12 years

what is a conquistador?

a conqueror

what is mestizo?

mixed spanish and native american population

what is the encomienda?

system that forced natives to farm, ranch, or mine for spanish landlords

in 1492, christopher columbus and his crew landed on an island in the caribbean sea named

San Salvador

lands that are controlled by another nation are called

colonies

after magellans death, his crew returned to spain in 1522 and became the first sailors to

sail around the world; circumnavigate

the first european settlers in the americas were the

spanish

cortes and others who sought riches in the americas were known as

conquistadors

the spanish explorer who conquered the inca was

Francisco Pizzaro

the mestizo population in the americas was a mixture of

spanish and native americans

the system of oppression used by the spanish against the native americans was called

encomienda

europeans in the americas turned to africans for labor because native americans died of

disease,warfare, and brutal treatments

the first europeans to explore africa in the 1400s were the

portuguese

the buying and selling of africans for work in the americas was called

the atlantic slave trade

the industry in the portuguese colony of brazil that demanded a high number of laborers, often captured africans

Sugar industry

the leading carrier of enslaved africans until 1807 was

england

the transatlantic trading network that transported enslaved persons was known as

triangular trade

the voyage of captured africans to the west indies and north and south america was called the

middle passage

an enslaved person who wrote about the inhumane treatment of captured africans

olaudah equiano

a violent uprising of a group of slaves in south carolina in 1739

stono rebellion

besides breaking up families and bringing about the deaths of thousands of africans in the americas , the slave trade devastated africa by introducing these to the continents

guns

africans survived a life of slavery in america by relying on their own

culture

these parts of african culture continue to influence the american continent today

art, religion, music and food

the global transfer of foods, plants and animals during the colonization of the americas

the columbian exchange

new plants that came to the americas from europe, asia,and africa

turnip, sugar cane, peach, grape, pear, and olive

the two most important food items that were exported from the americas

corn and potatoes

an unwelcome part of the transatlantic trade to the americas

disease

an economic system based on private ownereship and investment of resources for profit

capitalism

a steady rise in the price of goods

inflation

a business venture that involved a number of people combining their wealth for a common purpose

joint stock company

a country establishes this by selling more goods than it buys

favorable balance of trade

the economic revolution in europe spurred the growth of these two things

towns and the rise of a class of merchants who controlled great wealth

french explorers controlled these colonies

new france in quebec

the english controlled these colonies

jamestown on the coast of virginia and new york

the pilgrims controlled this colony

plymouth in massachusetts

the dutch controlled this colony

new netherland

the portuguese controlled this colony

brazil

the incan ruler who commanded a force of about 30,000 men

atahualpa

the war between the french and british over land claims in the ohio valley, the british won and the french surredered their north american holdings

french and indian war

native american ruler also known as king phillip who led an attack pn colonial villages throughout massachusetts

metacom

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