US History 1900-1945

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Industrialization, Immigration & Progressivism WWI & Great Depression

Booker T. Washington

Through hard work leading to economic success, Washington felt that blacks could eventually acquire social and political rights.

WEB Du Bois

In response to Washington, DB felt that blacks should not have to tolerate white domination and should immediately fight for their social and political rights.

Atlanta Compromise

Booker T. Washington presented his views in 1895 in this speech. He said blacks should compromise with whites - though he did not feel blacks were inferior, he still endorsed a separate-but-equal policy.

NAACP

Co-founded by DuBois, National Assoc. Advancement of Colored People, which advocated an end to discrimination.

Old Immigration

Prior to 1871, most immigrants to America came from northern and western Europe: Germany, Great Britan, Ireland, Norway, and Sweden.

New Immigration

During the half century from 1871 to 1921, most immigrants came from southern and eastern Europe: Italy, Greece, Poland, Russia, and present-day Hungary and Yugoslavia; as well as Asia (China and Japan).

Knights of Labor

Who?: Terence V. Powderly
What: 1st national union
Goals:
-8 hour workday
- Worker-owned factories
- Abolition of child and prison labor
- Equal pay for men and women
- Safety codes in the workplace
- Prohibition of contact foreign labor
- Abolition of the National Bank

Eugene V. Debs

Who?: Leader of the American Railway Union
Goal: Change American society and economy in favor of the workers.
Difference from Samuel Gompers: Wants workers in control of the economy not big business.

Emmigrate

To emmigrate is to LEAVE one's country of origin to settle into another country.

Immigrate

To immigrate is to COME INTO a country for permanant residence.

Ku Klux Klan

Also known as the KKK, was an organization that believed in white supremacy, white nationalization, and anti-immigration. They terrorized those whom they felt inferior, such as African-Americans and foreigners.

16th Amendment

Power of Congress to tax incomes

17th Amendment

established the direct election of senators

18th Amendment

Prohibited the manufacture, sale, and distribution of alcoholic beverages

19th Amendment

gave women the right to vote

Statue Of Liberty

a large monumental statue symbolizing liberty on Liberty Island in New York Bay

Capitalism

an economic system based on private ownership of capital

Limited Liability

the liability of a firm's owners for no more than the capital they have invested in the firm

Thomas Edison

Inventor of the light bulb, phonograph and numerous other innovations

Homestead Strike

1892 steelworker strike near Pittsburgh against the Carnegie Steel Company. Ten workers were killed in a riot when "scab" labor was brought in to force an end to the strike.

Henry Ford

United States manufacturer of automobiles

Laissez-faire

The doctrine that government should not interfere in commercial affairs

Wright Brothers

Two brothers, Orville and Wilbur, who were responsible for the first flight and creation of an airplane

Initiative

Reform that allowed reformers to circumvent state legislatures by submitting new legislation directly to the voters in general elections.

Recall

Reform that gave voters the right to remove a public official from office at a special election, which could be called after a sufficient number of citizens had signed a petition.

Referendum

Reform that provided a method by which actions of the legislature could be returned to the electorate for approval.

Slums

Slums are the run-down part of the city with a high rate of disease and poverty. It was mostly inhabited by immigrants in the progressive era and was rather unsanitary. It was abundant in crime, drug addiction, unemployment, and alcoholists.

Bessemer

Refined the steel-making process

Vanderbilt

Rail Road tycoon

Bessemer Process

Newly refined process for the production of steel; the first inexpensive industrial process for this purpose

Carnegie

The man behind Carnegie Steel; entrepreneur & philanthropist

Angel Island

Most immigrants from Asia arrived here, rather than Ellis Island. Located in CA.

United Negro Improvement Association

The United Negro Improvement Association was founded by Jamaican-born, Marcus Garvey, in 1914. He wanted a complete seperation with the white culture, because he felt that whites would never accept them in their world. To do this, they would have to return to their native land, or complete seperation within the United States.

Direct Election

Direct election is a term describing a system of choosing political officeholders in which the voters directly cast ballots for the person, persons or political party that they desire to see elected. The method by which the winner or winners of a direct election are chosen depends upon the electoral system used.

The Jungle

The Jungle is a 1906 novel written by journalist Upton Sinclair. The Jungle raised a public outcry against the unhealthy standards in the meatpacking industry and provoked the passage of The Pure Food and Drug Act of 1906.

American Railway Union

The American Railway Union (A.R.U.) was founded on June 20, 1893 in Chicago, Illinois. Led by Eugene V. Debs, the A.R.U. very quickly became the nation's largest organized union. The A.R.U. welcomed any railway worker except for those above the rank of foreman.

Assembly line

Production system created by Henry Ford to make goods faster by moving parts on a conveyor belt past workers

Monopoly

exclusive control of a product or service in a particular market, or a control that makes possible the manipulation of prices

Industrialization

the development of industry on an extensive scale

Ellis Island

an island in New York Bay that was formerly the principal immigration station for the United States especially during the time of industrialization

Susan B. Anthony

Was a woman's rights activist who was the co-founder of the first Woman's Temperance Movement with Elizabeth Cady Stanton

J.P. Morgan

The most powerful financier in the US who financed the creation of the Federal Steel Company

Urbanization

The growth and movement to Urban city areas

Nativeism

The policy of protecting the rights of natural citizens of an area against immigrants

Strike

The act of refusing to work, most often in a group such as a union as a protest.

Populism

A political policy that supports the common people and their rights against the privileged upper class.

Unions

The joining together of workers to support each other in a common goal, usually to improve working conditions or wages.

Angel Island

The immigration station on the west coast where Asian immigrants, mostly Chinese gained admission to the U.S. at San Francisco Bay. Between 1910 and 1940 50k Chinese immigrants entered through Angel Island. Questioning and conditions at Angel Island were much harsher than Ellis Island in New York.

Tenements

poorly built, overcrowded housing where many immigrants lived

Plessy v. Ferguson

sumpreme court ruled that segregation public places facilities were legal as long as the facilites were equal

"separate but equal"

Principle upheld in Plessy v. Ferguson (1896) in which the Supreme Court ruled that segregation of public facilities was legal.

Pure Food and Drug Act

1906 - to protect the public against adulteration of food and from products identified as healthful without scientific support. It created requirement of proper label and restriction on prescribed drug.

Federal Trade Commission

FTC Act was passed to prevent unfair competition in business and to defend consumers. They also regulate advertisement, marketing, consumer lending, antitrust issues, and economics impact of government regulation on markets and industries

Sewage System

As the populations increased, more sewage systems were developed. However, it combined storm water in the sewage which was an unsanitary and inefficient, though the systems were cheaper than installing separate systems. Also, wastewater, or water with sewage in it, was normally dumped into nearby water sources, such as rivers and lakes.

Marcus Garvey

1887 - 1940: he was a publisher of the paper Negro World and a Black Nationalist who founded the Universal Negro Improvement Association and African Communities League. He spoke about worldwide black unity and an end to colonialism and was famous for the Garvey Movement.

Assimilation

People of different backgrounds come to see themselves as part of a larger national family.

Woodrow Wilson

Woodrow Wilson has always been easy for liberals to like. He was a reformer during the Progressive era, establishing an eight-hour workday, outlawing child labor, and busting trusts. He instituted the federal income tax and the Federal Reserve System, and created the parameters of American foreign policy that remain with us today.

Federal Reserve

System of federal banks, charged with regulating the US money supply, mainly by buying and selling US securities and setting the discount interest rate.

William Howard Taft

During the progressive era, he strengthen the interstate commerce and improved the performance of the postal service.

Ida Tarbell

Leading muckraking journalist whose articles documented the Standard Oil Company's abuse of power

Jacob Riis

He was a Danish Immigrant muckraker who in the early 1900's exposed social and political evils in the U.S. with his novel "How The Other Half Lives"; exposed the poor conditions of the poor tenements in NYC. He was

Upton Sinclair

He was a muckraker who shocked the nation when he published The Jungle, a novel that revealed gruesome details about the meat packing industry in Chicago.

Gilded Age

Late 1800s to Early 1900s - time of large increase in wealth caused by industrialization.

Continental United States

The 49 states, excluding Hawaii.

Commission

A fee for services rendered based on a percentage of an amount received or collected or agreed to be paid (as distinguished from a salary).

Council Manager

A form of city government in which the city council and mayor hire a professional manager to run the city.

Public transportation system

the trains and buses that carry people through a city

Industrial Conflict

conflict between worker and those with economic and political authority over them

price fixing

an agreement between two or more firms on the price they will charge for a product

Clayton Anti-Trust Act

New antitrust legislation constructed to remedy deficiencies of the Sherman Antitrust Act, namely, it's effectiveness against labor unions

Chinese Exclusion Act 1882

United States federal law passed on May 6, 1882, following revisions made in 1880 to the Burlingame Treaty of 1868. Those revisions allowed the U.S. to suspend immigration, and Congress subsequently acted quickly to implement the suspension of Chinese immigration, a ban that was intended to last 10 years.

Andrew Carnegie

Creates Carnegie Steel. Gets bought out by banker JP Morgan and renamed U.S. Steel. Andrew Carnegie used vertical integration by buying all the steps needed for production. Was a philanthropist. Controversial legacy

Haymarket Strike

An organized protest in 1886 which was then disrupted when anarchists threw a bomb into a mist of police. It quickely turned into a riot. Many were killed and futher ruined the image of anarrchists and unions.

Square Deal

Progressive concept by Roosevelt that would help capital, labor, and the public. It called for control of corporations, consumer protection, and conservation of natural resources. It denounced special treatment for the large capitalists and is the essential element to his trust-busting attitude. This deal embodied the belief that all corporations must serve the general public good.

Zimmerman Note

Message proposing an alliance between Germany and Mexico

Acquisition of Hawaii

-US acquires Hawaii
-Jails Queen Liliuokalani
-Forces constitution
-Place to build a naval base and coaling stations
-Christianize
-Close to china

Zimmermann Note

a secret document to Mexico that said Germany would help them regain lost territories in Texas, Arizona, and New Mexico if they joined the war on the Central Powers side

Fourteen Points

the war aims outlined by President Wilson in 1918, which he believed would promote lasting peace; called for self-determination, freedom of the seas, free trade, end to secret agreements, reduction of arms and a league of nations

Spanish American War

In 1898, a conflict between the United States and Spain, in which the U.S. supported the Cubans' fight for independence

League of Nations

International organization founded in 1919 to promote world peace and cooperation but greatly weakened by the refusal of the United States to join. It proved ineffectual in stopping aggression by Italy, Japan, and Germany in the 1930s.

Prohibition

a law forbidding the sale of alcoholic beverages

Open Door Policy

Statement of U.S. foreign policy toward China. Issued by U.S. secretary of state John Hay (1899), the statement reaffirmed the principle that all countries should have equal access to any Chinese port open to trade.

FDIC

Federal Deposit Insurance Corporation: a federally sponsored corporation that insures accounts in national banks and other qualified institutions

Margaret Sanger

American leader of the movement to legalize birth control during the early 1900's. As a nurse in the poor sections of New York City, she had seen the suffering caused by unwanted pregnancy. Founded the first birth control clinic in the U.S. and the American Birth Control League, which later became Planned Parenthood.

Scopes Trial

a highly publicized trial in 1925 when John Thomas Scopes violated a Tennessee state law by teaching evolution in high school

Social Security

Social Security is a social insurance program that is primarily funded through dedicated payroll taxes called Federal Insurance Contributions Act tax (FICA). Tax deposits are formally entrusted to the Federal Old-Age and Survivors Insurance Trust Fund, the Federal Disability Insurance Trust Fund, the Federal Hospital Insurance Trust Fund, or the Federal Supplementary Medical Insurance Trust Fund.

WPA

Work Progress Administration: Massive work relief program funded projects ranging from construction to acting; disbanded by FDR during WWII

Sinking of the USS Maine

The US battleship Main blew up with over 250 men found dead. The cause of the explosion could not be determined, but America immediately blamed Spain. "Remember the Maine, to hell with Spain!" This was one cause for the Spanish-American war. "yellow journalism"

Dollar Diplomacy

Term used to describe the efforts of the US to further its foreign policy through use of economic power by gaurenteeing loans to foreign countries

AAA

Agricultural Adjustment Administration (1933)- Recovery- Attempted to regulate agricultural production through farm subsides; reworked after the Supreme Court ruled its key regulatory provisions unconstitutional in 1936; coordinated agricultural production during World War II, after which it was disbanded.

National Origins Act of 1924

A law that dramatically restricted immigration by establishing quotas.

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