Ch 1: History

Created by psalm23_usmc 

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Francesco Redi

Disproved spontaneous generation by demonstrating that maggots developed without access to meat.

Louis Pasteur

Disproved spontaneous generation by using swan-shaped flask that prevented dust particles from contaminating broth.

Robert Hooke

provided the earliest record of microbes using his single lens microscope; author of "Micrographia"

Antonie Leeuwenhoek

Expanded on Hook's observations; Constructed hundreds of microscopes; Considered the "Father of Microbiology"

John Tyndall

Developed process of "Tyndallization" by use of a Tyndall Box coated with glycerin to catch any floating bacteria in the air; Used urine flasks to demonstrate the use of a Tyndall Box; Stated that some microbes have very high heat resistance

Ferdinand Cohn

Discovered heat resistant bacterial ENDOSPORES, which explained why boiling did not always eliminate all microorganisms.

Robert Koch

Linked microscopic organisms with disease by studying anthrax, which he infected mice with; Developed Koch's Postulates

Ignaz Semmellueis

Showed that women became infected in the maternity ward after examinations by physicians coming directly from the autopsy room.

Joseph Lister

Introduced aseptic techniques to keep the medical setting more sterile.

John Needham

Proposed to test whether or not microorganisms appeared spontaneously after boiling; boiled chicken broth, put it into a flask, sealed it, and waited...microorganisms grew; claimed victory for spontaneous generation

Lazzaro Spallanzani

Suggested that microorganisms were still able to enter the flask in Needham's experiment; modified Needham's experiment by placing chicken broth in a flask, sealed flask, drew off the air to create a vacuum, then boiled broth...no microorganisms grew!

Hooke, Leeuwenhoek

Who demonstrated that microbes exist?

Cohn, Pasteur, Tyndall

Who demonstrated that bacteria reproduces rather than spontaneously generates?

Robert Koch

Who demonstrated that microbes are responsible for diseases?

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