Chapter 14 How Biological Diversity Evolves

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Macroevolution

the major changes in the history of life

Speciation

formation of new species

Biological Species Concept

a species concept defining a species as a population or group thereof whose members potentially interbreed and with one another in nature to produce

Species

group of similar organisms that can breed and produce fertile offspring

Prezygotic Barriers

these prevent mating or fertilization between species

Postzygotic Barriers

mechanisms that operate should interspecies mating actually occurs and form hybrid zygotes

Allopatric Speciation

the initial block to gene flow is a geographic barrier that physically isolates the splinter population

Sympatric Speciation

the orgin of new species without geographic isolation

Punctuated Equilibrium

this addresses the nongradual appearance of species

Exaptation

a structure that evolves in one context and later becomes adapted for other functions

Paedomorphosis

the retention into adulthood of features that were solely juvenile in its ancestors

Geologic Time Scale

this reflects a consistent sequence of geolic periods

Radiometric Dating

based on the decay of radioactive isotopes

Systematics

the study of diversity and relationships or organisms, both past and present

Taxonomy

the identification, naming and classification of species

Binomial

consisting of two names or terms

Genus

this is the first part of the binomial that which the species belong

Classification

this places similar genera in the same family, puts families in orders, orders into classes, classes into phyla, phyla into kingdoms and kingdoms into domains

Phylogeny

the evolutionary history of a species

Phylogenetic Tree

the principle of common descent is reflected in the branches of the tree

Convergent Evolution

species from different evolutionary branches may have certain structures that are superficially similar if natural selection has shaped analogous adaptations

Cladistics

the scientific search for clades

Clade

consists of an ancestral species and all its descendants a distinctive branch in the tree of life

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