Sociology Chapters 1, 2, 3, & 5 Test Study

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Book: Macionis Thirteenth Edition

Idea that the social world guides our actions and life choices just as the seasons influence activities and choice of clothing describes:

Free Will

Pioneering sociologist who studied patterns of suicide in Europe was:

Emile Durkheim

Barbara Ehrenreich, who tried to live working at low-wage jobs, found that most of her co-workers were able to move ahead to better paying work: true/false?

False

Which early sociologist had an important influence on the development of the social conflict approach?

Harriet Martineau, Jane Adams, Ida Wells Barton, or Du Bois

The Goal of the structural-functional approach is not simply to understand how society operates but to reduce social inequality: true/false?

False

Which theoretical approach claims that it is not so much what people do that matters as much as what meaning they attach to their behavior?

Symbolic Interaction Approach

The framework for building theory that sees society as an arena of inequality that generates conflict and change is the:

Social Conflict Approach

Sociologists use the term "empirical evidence" to refer to:

information we can verify with our senses

A variable that is changed by another variable is called the "independent variable": true/false?

False

In the process of measurement, reliability refers to:

Consistency in measurement

What concept refers to measuring exactly what one intends to measure?

Validity

An apparent, although false, association between two variables that is caused by some third variable is called:

Spurious Correlation

The idea of objectivity means that a researcher:

Stays neutral while conducting research

Sociologists cannot precisely predict and person's behavior because:

Social patterns change, presence of researcher can influence study, researchers aren't "value free"

Which research method asks subjects to respond to a series of items in a questionnaire or an interview?

Survey

A smaller number of people used to represent an entire population is called a:

Sample

What is the term for the beliefs, values, behavior, and material objects that together make up a people's way of life?

Culture

Cars, computers, and iPhones are all example of which of the following?

Cause of cultural change OR Invention OR Material culture

Standards by which people who share culture define what is desirable, good, and beautiful are called:

Values

Wrong-doing, such as an adult forcing a child to engage in sexual activity, is an example of violating cultural:

Norms

Subculture refers to:

Cultural patterns that set apart some segment of a societies population

Ethnocentrism refers to:

Judging another culture bu the standards of one's own culture

Symbols refer to anything that carries meaning recognized by people who share a culture: true/false?

True

Gestures such as "thumbs up" are used in most societies of the world to signify that something is very good: true/false

False

Counterculture refers to

Cultural patterns strongly opposed to those that are widely accepted within a society

What concept refers to the lifelong social experience bu which human beings develop their potential and learn culture?

Socialization

In the nature versus nurture debate, sociologists claim that:

Nurture is more important than nature

Our basic drives or needs as humans are reflected in Freud's concept of:

Eros and Thanatos

According to Piaget, in what stage of human development do individuals experience the world only through sensory contact?

Sensorimotor Stage

When Cooley used the concept of "the looking glass," he meant to say that:

Self image that is based on how we think other see us

What statements describes Erik H. Erikson's view of socialization?

Personality formation is a lifelong process

Industrial societies typically define people in old age as:

Unimportant/Obsolete

In her research, Elisabeth Kübler-Ross found that death:

Is an orderly transition involving 5 stages

The "ego" in Freud's model of personality is the same as "conscious": true/false?

False. Super Ego.

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