Chapter 13-Emotion-Study Guide pg 340-343

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ch. 13 study guide given in class. 1st page in packet - front and back

Which of the following is correct regarding the relationship between arousal and performance?
a. Generally, performance is optimal when arousal is low.
b. Generally, performance is optimal when arousal is high.
c. On easy tasks, performance is optimal when arousal is low.
d. On easy tasks, performance is optimal when arousal is high.

d. On easy tasks, performance is optimal when arousal is high.

Which division of the nervous system is especially involved in bringing about emotional arousal?
a. somatic nervous system
b. peripheral nervous system
c. sympathetic nervous system
d. parasympathetic nervous system

c. sympathetic nervous system

Concerning emotions and their accompanying body responses, which of the following appears to be true?
a. Each emotion has its own body response and underlying brain circuit.
b. All emotions involve the same body response as a result of the same underlying brain circuit.
c. Many emotions involve similar body responses but have different underlying brain circuits.
d. All emotions have the same underlying brain circuits but different body responses.

c. Many emotions involve similar body responses but have different underlying brain circuits.

The Cannon-Bard theory of emotion states that:
a. emotions have two ingredients:physical arousal and a cognitive label.
b. the conscious experience of an emotion occurs at the same time as the body's physical reaction.
c. emotional experiences are based on an awareness of the body's responses to an emotion-arousing stimulus.
d. emotional ups and downs tend to balance in the long run.

b. the conscious experience of an emotion occurs at the same time as the body's physical reaction.

Electrical stimulation of which brain region can produce terror or rage in cats?
a. limbic system
b. hypothalamus
c. cortex
d. cerebellum

a. limbic system

The body's response to danger is triggered by the release of _____ by the _____ gland(s).
a. acetylcholine; adrenal
b. epinephrine and norepinephrine; adrenal
c. acetylcholine; pituitary
d. epinephrine and norepinephrine; pituitary

b. epinephrine and norepinephrine; adrenal

Which of the following was not raised as a criticism of the James-Lange theory of emotion?
a. The body's responses are too similar to trigger the various emotions.
b. Emotional reactions occur before the body's responses can take place.
c. The cognitive activity of the cortex plays a role in the emotions we experience.
d. People with spinal cord injuries at the neck typically experience less emotion.

d. People with spinal cord injuries at the neck typically experience less emotion.

(Thinking Critically) Current estimates are that the polygraph is inaccurate approximately _____ of the time.
a. three-fourths
b. one-half
c. one-third
d. one-fourth

c. one-third

In the Schachter-Singer experiment, which college men reported feeling an emotional change in the presence of the experimenter's highly emotional confederate?
a. those receiving epinephrine and expecting to feel physical arousal
b. those receiving a placebo and expecting to feel physical arousal
c. those receiving epinephrine but not expecting to feel physical arousal
d. those receiving a placebo and not expecting to feel physical arousal

c. those receiving epinephrine but not expecting to feel physical arousal

Which of the following is true regarding happiness?
a. People with more education tend to be happier.
b. Beautiful people tend to be happier than plain people.
c. Women tend to be happier than men.
d. People who are socially outgoing or who exercise regularly tend to be happier.

d. People who are socially outgoing or who exercise regularly tend to be happier.

Catharsis will be most effective in reducing anger toward another person if:
a. you wait until you are no longer angry before confronting the person.
b. the target of your anger is someone you feel has power over you.
c. your anger is directed specifically toward the person who angered you.
d. the other person is able to retaliate by also expressing anger.

c. your anger is directed specifically toward the person who angered you.

Emotions consist of which of the following components?
a. physiological reactions
b. behavioral expressions
c. conscious feelings
d. all of the above

d. all of the above

Law enforcement officials sometimes use a lie detector to assess a suspect's responses to details of the crime believed to be known only to the perpetrator. This is known as the:
a. inductive approach.
b. deductive approach.
c. guilty knowledge test.
d. screening examination.

c. guilty knowledge test.

Research on nonverbal communication has revealed that:
a. it is easy to hide your emotions by controlling your facial expressions.
b. facial expressions tend to be the same the world over, while gestures vary from culture to culture.
c. most authentic expressions last between 7 and 10 seconds.
d. most gestures have universal meanings; facial expressions vary from culture to culture.

b. facial expressions tend to be the same the world over, while gestures vary from culture to culture.

In laboratory experiments, fear and joy:
a. result in an increase in heart rate.
b. stimulate different facial muscles.
c. increase heart rate and stimulate different facial muscles.
d. result in a decrease in heart rate.

c. increase heart rate and stimulate different facial muscles.

Research suggests that people generally experience the greatest well-being when they strive for:
a. wealth.
b. modest income increases from year to year.
c. slightly higher status than their friends, neighbors, and co-workers.
d. intimacy and personal growth.

d. intimacy and personal growth.

Research indicates that a person is most likely to be helpful to others if he or she:
a. feeling guilty about something.
b. is happy.
c. recently received help from another person.
d. recently offered help to another person.

b. is happy.

With regard to emotions, Darwin believed that:
a. the expression of emotions helped our ancestors to survive.
b. all humans express basic emotions using similar facial expressions.
c. human facial expressions of emotion retain elements of animals' emotional displays.
d. all of the above are true.

d. all of the above are true.

A graph depicting the course of positive emotions over the hours of the day since waking would:
a. start low and rise steadily until bedtime.
b. start high and decrease steadily until bedtime.
c. remain at a stable, moderate level throughout the day.
d. rise over the early hours and dissipate during the day's last several hours.

d. rise over the early hours and dissipate during the day's last several hours.

Evidence that changes in facial expression can directly affect people's feelings and body states has convinced Robert Zajonc that:
a. the heart is always subject to the mind.
b. emotional reactions involve deliberate rational thinking.
c. cognition is not necessary for emotion.
d. the interpretation of facial expressions is a learned skill.

c. cognition is not necessary for emotion.

Matching items: (use the letters to match with the description)
a. adaptation-level phenomenon
b. two-factor theory
c. catharsis
d. sympathetic nervous system
e. James-Lange theory
f. polygraph
g. Cannon-Bard theory
h. parasympathetic nervous system
i. relative deprivation principle
j. feel-good, do-good phenomenon
k. subjective well-being

the tendency to react to changes on the basis of recent experience

a. adaptation-level phenomenon

Matching items: (use the letters to match with the description)
a. adaptation-level phenomenon
b. two-factor theory
c. catharsis
d. sympathetic nervous system
e. James-Lange theory
f. polygraph
g. Cannon-Bard theory
h. parasympathetic nervous system
i. relative deprivation principle
j. feel-good, do-good phenomenon
k. subjective well-being

an individual's self-perceived happiness

k. subjective well-being

Matching items: (use the letters to match with the description)
a. adaptation-level phenomenon
b. two-factor theory
c. catharsis
d. sympathetic nervous system
e. James-Lange theory
f. polygraph
g. Cannon-Bard theory
h. parasympathetic nervous system
i. relative deprivation principle
j. feel-good, do-good phenomenon
k. subjective well-being

emotional release

c. catharsis

Matching items: (use the letters to match with the description)
a. adaptation-level phenomenon
b. two-factor theory
c. catharsis
d. sympathetic nervous system
e. James-Lange theory
f. polygraph
g. Cannon-Bard theory
h. parasympathetic nervous system
i. relative deprivation principle
j. feel-good, do-good phenomenon
k. subjective well-being

the tendency to evaluate our situation negatively against that of other people

i. relative deprivation principle

Matching items: (use the letters to match with the description)
a. adaptation-level phenomenon
b. two-factor theory
c. catharsis
d. sympathetic nervous system
e. James-Lange theory
f. polygraph
g. Cannon-Bard theory
h. parasympathetic nervous system
i. relative deprivation principle
j. feel-good, do-good phenomenon
k. subjective well-being

emotions consist of physical arousal and a cognitive label

b. two-factor theory

Matching items: (use the letters to match with the description)
a. adaptation-level phenomenon
b. two-factor theory
c. catharsis
d. sympathetic nervous system
e. James-Lange theory
f. polygraph
g. Cannon-Bard theory
h. parasympathetic nervous system
i. relative deprivation principle
j. feel-good, do-good phenomenon
k. subjective well-being

an emotion-arousing stimulus triggers cognitive and body responses simultaneously

g. Cannon-Bard theory

Matching items: (use the letters to match with the description)
a. adaptation-level phenomenon
b. two-factor theory
c. catharsis
d. sympathetic nervous system
e. James-Lange theory
f. polygraph
g. Cannon-Bard theory
h. parasympathetic nervous system
i. relative deprivation principle
j. feel-good, do-good phenomenon
k. subjective well-being

the division of the nervous system that calms the body following arousal

h. parasympathetic nevous system

Matching items: (use the letters to match with the description)
a. adaptation-level phenomenon
b. two-factor theory
c. catharsis
d. sympathetic nervous system
e. James-Lange theory
f. polygraph
g. Cannon-Bard theory
h. parasympathetic nervous system
i. relative deprivation principle
j. feel-good, do-good phenomenon
k. subjective well-being

the division of the nervous system that activates arousal

d. sympathetic nervous system

Matching items: (use the letters to match with the description)
a. adaptation-level phenomenon
b. two-factor theory
c. catharsis
d. sympathetic nervous system
e. James-Lange theory
f. polygraph
g. Cannon-Bard theory
h. parasympathetic nervous system
i. relative deprivation principle
j. feel-good, do-good phenomenon
k. subjective well-being

a device that measures the physiological correlates of emotion

f. polygraph

Matching items: (use the letters to match with the description)
a. adaptation-level phenomenon
b. two-factor theory
c. catharsis
d. sympathetic nervous system
e. James-Lange theory
f. polygraph
g. Cannon-Bard theory
h. parasympathetic nervous system
i. relative deprivation principle
j. feel-good, do-good phenomenon
k. subjective well-being

the tendency of people to be helpful when they are in a good mood

j. feel-good, do-good phenomenon

Matching items: (use the letters to match with the description)
a. adaptation-level phenomenon
b. two-factor theory
c. catharsis
d. sympathetic nervous system
e. James-Lange theory
f. polygraph
g. Cannon-Bard theory
h. parasympathetic nervous system
i. relative deprivation principle
j. feel-good, do-good phenomenon
k. subjective well-being

we are sad because we cry

e. James-Lange theory

Which of the following most accurately describes emotional arousal?
a. Emotions prepare the body to fight or flee.
b. Emotions are voluntary reactions to emotion-arousing stimuli.
c. Because all emotions have the same physiological basis, emotions are primarily psychological events.
d. Emotional arousal is always accompanied by cognition.

a. Emotions prepare the body to fight or flee.

Schacter's two-factor theory emphasizes that emotion involves both:
a. the sympathetic and parasympathetic divisions of the nervous system.
b. verbal and nonverbal expression.
c. physical arousal and a cognitive label.
d. universal and culture-specific aspects.

c. physical arousal and a cognitive label.

When students studied others who were worse off than themselves, they felt greater satisfaction with their own lives. This is an example of the principle of:
a. relative deprivation.
b. adaptation level.
c. behavioral contrast.
d. opponent processes.

a. relative deprivation.

Which theory of emotion emphasizes the simultaneous experience of body response and emotional feeling?
a. James-Lange theory
b. Cannon-Bard theory
c. two-factor theory
d. valence theory

b. Cannon-Bard theory

Izard believes that there are _____ basic emotions.
a. 3
b. 5
c. 7
d. 10

d. 10

(Thinking Critically) The polygraph measures:
a. lying.
b. brain rhythms.
c. chemical changes in the body.
d. physiological indexes of arousal.

d. physiological indexes of arousal.

People who are exuberant and persistently cheerful show increased activity in the brain's _____, which is rich in receptors for the neurotransmitter _____.
a. right frontal lobe; dopamine
b. left frontal lobe; dopamine
c. amygdala; serotonin
d. amygdala; serotonin

b. left frontal lobe; dopamine

Which of the following is true regarding gestures and facial expressions?
a. Gestures are universal; facial expressions, culture-specific.
b. Facial expressions are universal; gestures, culture-specific.
c. Both gestures and facial expressions are universal.
d. Both gestures and facial expressions are culture-specific.

b. Facial expressions are universal; gestures, culture-specific.

Which theory of emotion implies that every emotion is associated with a unique physiological reaction?
a. James-Lange theory
b. Cannon-Bard theory
c. two-factor theory
d. valence theory

a. James-Lange theory

For which of the following fears do humans appear to be biologically prepared?
a. fear of electricity
b. fear of cliffs
c. fear of flowers
d. fear of flying

b. fear of cliffs

Which of the following was not presented in the text as evidence that some emotional reactions involve no deliberate, rational thinking?
a. Some of the neural pathways involved in emotion are separate from those involved in thinking and memory.
b. Emotional reactions are sometimes quicker than our interpretations of a situation.
c. People can develop an emotional preference for visual stimuli to which they have been unknowingly exposed.
d. Arousal of the sympathetic nervous system will trigger an emotional reaction even when artificially induced by an injection of epinephrine.

d. Arousal of the sympathetic nervous system will trigger an emotional reaction even when artificially induced by an injection of epinephrine.

Concerning the catharsis hypothesis, which of the following is true?
a. Expressing anger can be temporarily calming if it does not leave one feeling guilty or anxious.
b. The arousal that accompanies unexpressed anger never dissipates.
c. Expressing one's anger always calms one down.
d. Psychologists agree that under no circumstances is catharsis beneficial.

a. Expressing anger can be temporarily calming if it does not leave one feeling guilty or anxious.

In an emergency situation, emotional arousal will result in:
a. increased rate of respiration.
b. increased blood sugar.
c. a slowing of digestion.
d. all of the above.

d. all of the above.

A relatively high level of arousal would be most likely to facilitate:
a. remembering the lines of a play.
b. shooting free throws in basketball.
c. sprinting 100 meters.
d. taking a final exam in introductory psychology

c. sprinting 100 meters.

Several studies have shown that physical arousal can intensify just about any emotion. For example, when people who have been physically aroused by exercise are insulted, they often misattribute their arousal to the insult. This finding illustrates the importance of:
a. cognitive labels of arousal in the conscious experience of emotions.
b. a minimum level of arousal in triggering emotional experiences.
c. the simultaneous occurrence of physical arousal and cognitive labeling in emotional experience.
d. all of the above.

a. cognitive labels of arousal in the conscious experience of emotions.

(Thinking Critically) Many psychologists are opposed to the use of lie detectors because:
a. they represent an invasion of a person's privacy and could easily be used for unethical purposes.
b. there are often serious discrepancies among the various indicators such as perspiration and heart rate.
c. polygraphs cannot distinguish the various possible causes of arousal
d. they are accurate only about 50 percent of the time.

c. polygraphs cannot distinguish the various possible causes of arousal

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