a British passenger ship that was sunk by a German U-Boat on May 7, 1915. 128 Americans died. The sinking greatly turned American opinion against the Germans, helping the move towards entering the war.
National defense act
(June 1916) Congress passed this piece of legislation that more than doubled the size of the regular army to 220,000 and integrated the state National Guard under federal control.
Message proposing an alliance between Germany and Mexico, one of the reasons the US entered the war as it turned the American public against Germany.
First woman to serve in Congress. Suffragist and pacifist, voted against US involvement in WWI and WWII.
Selective Service Act
law requiring men to register for military service
John J Pershing
Commander of American Expeditionary Force of over 1 million troops who insisted his soldiers fight as independent units so US would have independent role in shaping the peace
1917 uprising in Russia led by Vladimir Lenin which established a communist government and withdrew Russia from World War I.
WWI veterans' group that promoted patriotism and economic benefits for former servicemen
War Revenue Bills of 1917 & 1918
Greatly increased federal income tax while lowering exemptions, increasing federal revenue to fund the war.
War Industries Board
Agency established during WWI to increase efficiency & discourage waste in war-related industries
federal agency that monitored natural resources and encouraged Daylight Savings Time
Railroad War Board
This was the result of the US Government essentially nationalizing the railroads during the war. This allowed the needs of the military to come first, and allowed comprehensive planning and nationwide coordination. The goal was to create a "continental railroad system"
This government agency was headed by Herbert Hoover and was established to increase the production of food and ration food for the military.
He was the head of the Food Administration who also led a charity drive to feed Belgians. He ensured the success of the Food Administration and created a surplus of food through volunteer actions.
National War Labor Board
The board was a composition of representatives from business and labor designed to arbitrate disputes between workers and employers. It settled any possible labor difficulties that might hamper the war efforts.
movement of over 300,000 African American from the rural south into Northern cities between 1914 and 1920
Movement receiving powerful support from progressives in early 1900s; finally won with the nineteenth amendment in 1920 due in part because of the role of women during the war
the period from 1920 to 1933 when the sale of alcoholic beverages was prohibited in the United States by a constitutional amendment
Committee on Public Information
Organization also known as the Creel Commision which was responsible for rallying American's around the war effort through propaganda
head of the Committee on Public Information 1917 which was allegedly formed to combat wartime rumors by providing authoritative info. It served as propaganda agency proclaiming the govn'ts version of reality and discrediting those who questioned that version.
American Protective League
Civilian organization who mobilized 250,000 people to spy on their neighbors and co-workers and to weed out the communist spies.
Espionage Act of 1917
provided fines and imprisonment for persons who aided the enemy, obstructed with the draft, caused disloyaly or refusal of duty in the army services. printed materials advocating treason could be excluded from the US mail
Sedition Act of 1918
added to Espionage Act to cover "disloyal, profane, scurrilous, or abusive language" about the American form of government, the Constitution, the flag, or the armed forces.
Schneck v. US
Court ruled 1st amendment freedom of speech did not apply in this case because the US was at war; speech posing a "clear and present danger" is illegal. The case did protect all of other speech, even that which might be considered offensive to some, "freedom for the thought we hate," 1919
the war aims outlined by President Wilson in 1918, which he believed would promote lasting peace; called for self-determination, freedom of the seas, free trade, end to secret agreements, reduction of arms and a league of nations
League of Nations
An organization of nations formed after World War I to promote cooperation and peace.
Versailles peace treaty
May 7, 1919 maintained that Germany alone was responsible for the outbreak of hostilities; Germany was split and given to the Soviet Union and France Germany was permitted a 100,000 man army, no tanks, no air force, no submarines, and only a nominal navy;
Senators who voted against the League of Nations with or without reservations. This small group of 16 eventually won out because Wilsonians and the reservationists could not agree on a plan
Henry Cabot Lodge
He was a Republican who disagreed with the Versailles Treaty, and who was the chairman of the Senate Foreign Relations Committee. He mostly disagreed with the section that called for the League to protect a member who was being threatened.
Steel Strike of 1919
shut down the steel industry as 350,000 workers walked out and owners refused to negotiate. Steel companies convinced the public that the strike was led by "Bolsheviks and anarchists". Federal troops guarded re-opened the mills with replacement workers. Blacks and Mexicans "scabs" were hired, adding to anger and violence
Boston Police Strike
strike by Boston policemen in the fall of 1919 underscored postwar hostility toward labor militancy. Although the police had received no raise since before the war and were paid less than pick and shovel laborers, they won little sympathy. Calvin Coolidge called in the National Guard to restore order. All strikers were fired. Public supported Coolidge & this helped him win the Presidency as people thought he would be tough on Communists.
period in US when there was a suspicion of communism and fear of widespread infultration of communists in the US government
A Mitchell Palmer
attorney general during the height of the Red Scare (1919-1920) who led raids against suspected radicals; reacting to terrorist bombings, fear of Bolshevism, and his own presidential aspirations, Palmer arrested 6,000 people and deported over 500.
Sacco and Vanzetti
Italian radicals who became symbols of the Red Scare of the 1920s; arrested (1920), tried and executed (1927) for a robbery/murder, they were believed by many to have been innocent but convicted because of their immigrant status and radical political beliefs.