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chapter 19 cardiovascular system: blood; part 6 - blood groupings - ABO

Transfusion

transfer of blood or blood components from one individual to another

Infusion

introduction of fluid other than blood

Blood groupings

determined by antigens (agglutinogens) on surface of RBCs; Antibodies (agglutinins) can bind to RBC antigens, resulting in agglutination (clumping) or hemolysis (rupture) of RBCs

Blood Groups

ABO and Rh

ABO Blood Group

Agglutination Reaction

Transfustion of ABO blood types

Type A blood has anti-B antibodies; Type B blood has anti-A antibodies; Suggested that these antibodies are present because of exposure to A/B antegens on bacteria and food

Donor

gives blood

Recipient

Receives blood

Universal Donor

type O; can atually cause transfusion reactions because of antibodies in O blood plasma

Rh Blood Group

1st studied in rhesus monkeys; Types Rh Positive, Rh Negative

Rh Positive

have these antigens present on surface of RBCs

Rh Negative

do not have these antigens present on surface of RBCs

Hemolytic Disease of Newborn (HDN)

Rh positive fetus, Rh negative mother; Late in pregnancy, Rh ntigens of fetus cross placenta (through a tear in placenta or during delivery) mother creates antiRh antibiodies (primary response); Second Rh positive pregnancy might initiate secondary response and HDN (potentially fatal to fetus since antibodies to its RBCs would cross placenta from mother to fetus, destroying fetal RBCs); Injection of RhoGAM, contains antibodies against Rh antigens, antibodies attach to any fetal RBCs ad they are destroyed

Erytrhoblastosis Fetalis

Diagnostic Blood Tests

Type/Crossmatch and Complete blood count

Type and Crossmatch

determination of ABO and Rh bood types; Red cells tested agains antibodies

Complete Blood Count

RBC count, hemoglobin measurements, hematocrit measurements, WBC count, differential WB count, Clotting (platelet count, prothrombin time measurement), blood chemistry

RBC Count

number of RBCs/microliter of blood

Hemoglobin Measurement

grams of hemoglobin/100 mL of blood; For a male, 14-18, female 12-16 g/100 mL

Hematocrit Measurement

percent of blood that is RBCs (centrifuge and measure)

WBC Count

5,000-10,000/ microliter of blood

Hematocrit Picture

Differential WBC Count

determines percentage of each of 5 types of WBC; Neutrophils: 60-70%, Lymphocytes: 20-30%, Monocytes: 2-8%, Eosinophils: 1-4%, Basophils: 0.5-1%

Platelet Count (Clotting)

250,000-400,000/microliter

Prothrombin Time Measurements (Clotting)

measures how long it takes for blood to start clotting; 9-12 seconds; To test, thromboplastin is added to whole plasma

Blood Chemistry

composition of materials dissolved or suspended in plasma; Used to assess functioning of many body systems

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