Chapter 11 & 12 Study Guide

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Where did Roosevelt rule?

The US

Where did Truman rule?

The US

Where did Hitler rule?

Germany

Where did Hess rule?

Germany

Where did Chamberlain rule?

Great Britain

Where did Churchill rule?

Great Britain

Where did De Gaulle rule?

France

Where did Stalin rule?

Soviet Union

Where did Hirohito rule?

Japan

Where did Tojo rule?

Japan

Where did Franco rule?

Spain

What was appeasement?

When you let something bad happen because you're scared you'll get hurt. When Britain and France agreed to Hitler's demands at the Munich Conference the policy became known as appeasement. France and Britain allowed Hitler to take Sudetenland

What lands did Hitler take back which had been taken from Germany in the Treaty of Versailles?

Rhineland, Austria, and Sudetenland

Why did Hitler take Austria?

Because he was Austrian

What was the Munich Pact?

An agreement between Italy, Germany, France, and Great Britain that served as appeasement purposes, securing Great Britain's and France's agreement to Adolf Hitler's Demands. Hitler demanded to take Sudetenland.

What was the Non-Aggression Pact?

A treaty proposed by German officials to the Soviets. Stalin agreed to it, he believed the best way to protect the USSR was to turn the capitalist nations against each other. If the treaty worked, Germany would go to war against Britain and France, the USSR would be safe. The pact said that Hitler would never invade Russia and Stalin would never invade Germany. Hitler got Stalin to believe that they would rule the world together and be friends.

What was the Invasion of Poland?

On September 1, 1939 Germany invaded Poland from the west, and soon after the Soviets invaded from the east. On Sept 3 Britain and France declared war on Germany, marking the start of WW2. The invasion of Poland was where Germany first started using the blitzkrieg warfare. Germany defeated Poland in this attack. Hitler invaded Poland because it was close to Russia (would make it easier to attack Russia).

What is Fascism?

A kind of aggressive nationalism. Fascists believed that the nation was more important than the individual. They argued that individualism made countries weak and that a strong government led by a dictator was needed to impose order on society. (Kind of like the way the coach leads a team) Mussolini founded the Fascist party.

Nazi Party

National Socialist German Workers' Party. It did not represent the working class, but was nationalistic and anticommunist. Hitler was one of the party's first recruits.

What was Blitzkrieg?

Type of warfare where you deliberately include civilians to create great panic and fear in help of making the opposing country surrender.

How was Hitler able to conquer all of Europe in just 8 months?

The practice of Blitzkrieg

What was Operation Overload?

The planned invasion of France. Roosevelt and Churchill were planning to invade France. The date for the invasion became known as D-day.

What is a totilatarian state?

Where the government is a single party dictatorship

What was Vichy France?

A term used for the government of France that collaborated with the Axis powers from July 1940 to August 1944. This government succeeded the Third Republic and preceded the Provisional Government of the French Republic.

What was the Holocaust?

The catastrophe that ravaged European Jews, the Nazis killed nearly 6 million Jews. The Nazis also killed millions of people from other groups they considered inferior.

What is Genocide?

The deliberate and systematic destruction, in whole or in part, of an ethnic, racial, religious, or national group

What is Kamikaze?

A Japanese suicide pilot whose mission was to crash into his target. It means Divine Wind in Japanese.

What is Island Hopping?

A very effective strategy without much cost and without enlisting a lot of men. It was an American strategy to defeat Japan where they would advance through the central Pacific by hopping from one island to the next, closer and closer to Japan.

Who were the Navajo Indians?

They came up with a hidden language (code) that had no written alphabet and was only known to the Navajo and a few missionaries and anthropologists. The Japanese were unable to read the code because so few people could translate it.

Who were wind talkers?

People in the US marine corps who talked in code and their primary job was the transmission of secret tactical messages.

Who was Eisenhower a general for?

The US

Who was Patton a general for? The US

Who was Patton a general for? The US

Who was MacArthur a general for?

US

Who was Montgomery a general for?

Great Britain

Who was Rommel a general for?

Germany

Who was Nimitz a general for?

The US

Who was Yamamoto a general for?

Japan

What was Arsenal of Democracy?.

A propaganda slogan coined by U.S. President Franklin D. Roosevelt, in a radio broadcast delivered on December 29, 1940. Roosevelt promised to help the United Kingdom fight Nazi Germany by giving them military supplies while the United States stayed out of the actual fighting.

What was cash and carry?

When Great Britain paid cash (gold- meant they could print more money which meant more circulation) for the materials, and they had to come and get the materials.

What was the destroyer deal?

When Great Britain desperately needed destroyers, Roosevelt used a loophole in the provision of the Neutrality Act that required cash for purchases. In exchange for the right to build American bases on British-controlled Newfoundland, Bermuda, and islands in the Caribbean, Roosevelt sent 50 old destroyers to Britain. Since the deal did not involve an actual sale, the Neutrality Act didn't apply.

What was the Fall of France?

When Germany took over France, this told America that Europe was in trouble (all of Europe had fallen to Germany except Great Britain), and if Great Britain fell to Germany - The US feared Hitler would come to the US. The fall of France starts us toward war.

What was Lend-Lease?

The United States would be able to lend or lease arms to any country considered "vital to the defense of the United States." This act meant that the US could send much needed weapons to Britain without cash payment if Britain promised to return or pay rent for them after the war.

What was the convoy system?

Cargo ships traveled in groups and were escorted by navy warships. It improved the situation dramatically. It made it much harder for a submarine to torpedo a cargo ship and escape without being attacked

What was shoot on sight?

When the navy escorted ships to Great Britain (convoy system) Roosevelt saw a clear and present danger and declared war power. He said if anyone felt in danger to not hesitate and shoot on sight at any German war vessel.

What was Pearl Harbor?

December 7, 1941 where Japan attacked Hawaii. Japan's surprise attack sank or damaged 21 ships of the U.S. Pacific Fleet, including 8 battleships, 3 cruisers, 4 destroyers, and 6 other vessels. The next day Congress asked to declare war on Japan.

What were the Axis Powers?

The alignment of great powers that fought World War II against the Allies. It was between Germany, Italy, and Japan.

What were the Allied Powers?

Between France, Great Britain, America, and Poland. They hated German rule.

What was the Atlantic Charter?

The agreement between Winston and Churchill. They agreed that America would supply supplies to Great Britain. It said WHEN America enters the war America will give assistance to Great Britain first.

What was the Yalta Conference?

Where the Allied leaders met at the Soviet resort of Yalta to plan the postwar world. There, Stalin reaffirmed the Soviet pledge to enter war against Japan after Germany was defeated. The conference focused on what to do about Poland, the issue of the declaration of Liberated Europe, and dividing Germany.

What was the Potsdam Conference?

Where Truman met Stalin to work out a deal on Germany. At the conference Truman suggested that the Soviets take reperations from their zone, while the Allies allowed industry to revive in the other zones. When Stalin opposed this idea. At Potsdam Truman learned that the atomic bomb had never been successfully tested, and he told Stalin about the test. Stalin agreed to the deal, despite his suspicions. American and British troops controlled Germany's industrial heartland, and there was no way for the Soviets to get any reparations except by cooperating.

What happened on Sept. 1, 1939?

The war began

What happened on Dec. 7, 1941?

Pearl Harbor

What happened on June 6, 1944?

D-Day (Operation Overload)

What happened on May 8, 1945?

VE Day- Victory in Europe

What happened on Aug. 6, 1945?

Hiroshima

What Happened on Aug. 15, 1945?

VJ- Victory in Japan

Dunkirk

When the British and French armies were trapped in Belgium the only way for them to evacuate was by sea. The Germans had captured all but one port, Dunkirk. When German forces got close to Dunkirk, Hitler ordered them to stop. This was a big mistake on Germany's part. Germany could have captured Britain and France but they stopped. Hitler's order provided a 3-day delay. This gave Britain time to strengthen their lines and begin the evacuation. The British and French were able to rescue a great amount of troops.

Battle of Britain .

Churchill ordered people to bomb Berlin- called a suicide mission because chances of coming out alive were slim-to-none, but they survived and there were no casualties. Hitler was so mad that Luftwaffe (German air force) didn't protect Berlin, so Germany bombed London. But London wasn't where the materials were made. Germany didn't know Britain had radar so they were always one step ahead.

Battle of the Atlantic

the war's longest continuous military campaign. During six years of naval warfare, German U-boats and warships - and later Italian submarines - were pitted against Allied convoys transporting military equipment and supplies across the Atlantic to Great Britain and the Soviet Union. This battle to control the Atlantic shipping lanes involved thousands of ships and stretched across thousands of perilous square miles of ocean.

Stalingrad

When German troops entered Stalingrad in mid-September, Stalin ordered his troops to hold the city at all costs. Retreat was forbidden. Germans were forced to fight from house to house, losing thousands of soldiers in the process. When the battle ended, 91,000 Germans surrendered, but only 5,000 of them survived the Soviet prison camps and returned home after the war. It was a major turning point in the war. It put the Germans on the Germans on the defensive.

Normandy (D-Day)

Allied troops landed along a 50-mile stretch of heavily-fortified French coastline to fight Nazi Germany on the beaches of Normandy, France. General Dwight D. Eisenhower called the operation a crusade in which "we will accept nothing less than full victory." More than 5,000 Ships and 13,000 aircraft supported the D-Day invasion, and by day's end on June 6, the Allies gained a foot- hold in Normandy. The D-Day cost was high -more than 9,000 Allied Soldiers were killed or wounded -- but more than 100,000 Soldiers began the march across Europe to defeat Hitler

Battle of the Bulge

Hitler's last desperate offensive. His goal was to cut off the Allied supplies by coming through the port of Antwerp, Belgium. As the German troops raced west, their lines bulged outward, and the attack became known as the Battle of the Bulge. Although the fighting went on for weeks, US won the battle. Germany had suffered more than 100,000 casualties and lost many tanks and aircraft. They now had very little left to prevent the Allies from entering Germany.

North Africa

Roosevelt decided to invade Morocco and Algeria for two reasons: The invasion would give the army some experience without requiring a lot of troops. More importantly, once American troops were in North Africa, they would be able to help British troops fighting the Germans in Egypt. Together, the American and British forces pushed the Germans back. On May 13, 1943, the last German forces in North America surrendered.

Sicily

The American attack on Sicily created a crisis within the Italian government. The Italian government announced Italy's surrender. The next day, American troops landed at Salerno. Although he was stunned by the surrender, Hitler wasn't going to lose Italy to the Allies. German troops went into action. They seized control of northern Italy, attacked the Americans at Salerno, and put Mussolini back in power. It took the Allies 5 months to break through the German lines at Casino and Anzio. Finally, Germans were forced to retreat. Less than 2 weeks later, the Allies captured Rome. Even though the Allies were victorious, the battle was one of the bloodiest in the war.

What were the German mistakes?

Dunkirk, Rudolf Hess, Battle of Britain, Invasion of Russia, and Death Camps.

Why was the Invasion of Russia a mistake?

Because England wasn't gone yet - doomed Germany to a 2-front war (when you're getting attacked by both sides)

Why were death camps a mistake?

Because is became the priority. Soldiers were freezing while other people got blankets.

Leyte Gulf

The largest naval battle in history. Was also the first time that the Japanese used kamikaze attacks. Luckily for the Americans, just as their situation was becoming desperate, the Japanese commander, believing more American ships were on the way, ordered a retreat.

Bataan

represented the most intense phase of Imperial Japan's invasion of the Philippines during World War II. The capture of the Philippine Islands was crucial to Japan's effort to control the Southwest Pacific, seize the resource-rich Dutch East Indies, and protect its Southeast Asia flank. It was the largest surrender in American and Filipino military history, and was the largest United States surrender since the Civil War's Battle of Harper's Ferry

Coral Sea

The Japanese thought that the United States was unaware of Japan's activity and would not be able to respond in time. They didn't know that an American team of code breakers, based in Hawaii, had already broken the Japanese Navy's secret code for conducting operations. Decoded Japanese messages alerted the US to the Japanese Attack on New Guinea. The American attacks forced the Japanese to call of their landing on the south coast of New Guinea. The American supply lines to Australia stayed open.

The Battle of Midway

Japanese didn't know that the US decoded their codes and knew what they were going to do. It was a turning point in the war. The japanese lost four of its largest carriers - the heart of its fleet. Midway put an end to the long period of Japanese offensive action. If it had turned differently, Hitler may have stayed around and won.

Iwo Jima

The Japanese killed themselves (they didn't surrender) It gave the impression that the Japanese would never surrender.

Okinawa

Where suicide became a strategy - kamikaze. Instead of defending the beaches, the Japanese troops took up positions in the island's rugged mountains. To dig the Japanese out of their caves and bunkers, the Americans had to fight their way up steep slopes against constant machine gun and artillery fire.

Hiroshima

The first bomb we dropped. Dropped the bomb so that Japan would surrender, but they didn't

Nagasaki

Second bomb we dropped. Dropped the second bomb until the Japanese surrendered unconditionally.

Isolation/Neutrality

America said they would stay out of the war. They isolated themselves from it. They didn't want to go to war because they were in a depression.

Executive order 9066

was a United States presidential executive order signed and issued during World War II by U.S. President Franklin D. Roosevelt on February 19, 1942 authorizing the Secretary of War to prescribe certain areas as military zones. Eventually, EO 9066 cleared the way for the relocation of Japanese Americans to internment camps.

Relocation Camps

In February 1942, President Franklin D. Roosevelt signed an executive order that moved nearly 120,000 Japanese and Japanese Americans into 10 isolated relocation centers in Arizona, Arkansas, California, Colorado, Idaho, Utah, and Wyoming.

Internment.

the imprisonment or confinement of people, commonly in large groups, without trial.

Nisei/ Isei

is a Japanese language term used in countries in North America, South America and Australia to specify the children born to Japanese people in the new country. The Nisei are considered the second generation; and the grandchildren of the Japanese-born immigrants are called Sansei

Manzanar

the site of one of ten camps where over 110,000 Japanese Americans were imprisoned during World War II

Korematsu v US

was a landmark United States Supreme Court case concerning the constitutionality of Executive Order 9066, which ordered Japanese Americans into internment camps during World War II. Ruled that the exclusion order was constitutional.

Zoot Suit Riots

a series of riots in 1943 during World War II that exploded in Los Angeles, California between white sailors and Marines stationed throughout the city and Latino youths, who were recognizable by the zoot suits they favored. While Mexican Americans and military servicemen were the main parties in the riots, African American and Filipino/Filipino American youth were also involved. They were in part the effect of the infamous Sleepy Lagoon murder which involved the death of a young Latino man in a barrio near Los Angeles.

War Productions Board

created by Roosevelt. The purpose of the board was to regulate the production and allocation of materials and fuel during World War II in the United States. The WPB converted and expanded peacetime industries to meet war needs, allocated scarce materials vital to war production, established priorities in the distribution of materials and services, and prohibited nonessential production.

Selective Service Act

enacted September 16, 1940, was the first peacetime conscription in United States history. This Selective Service Act required that men between the ages of 21 and 35 register with local draft boards. Later, when the U.S. entered World War II, all men aged 18 to 45 were made liable for military service, and all men aged 18 to 65 were required to register.

Office of War management

an independent agency of the United States government headed by Former Supreme Court Justice James F. Byrnes that coordinated all government agencies involved in the war effort during World War II. This office took over from the earlier War Production Board to shift the country from a peacetime to a wartime economy, sometimes loaning smaller factories the money needed to convert to war production.

Manhattan Project

a research and development program, led by the United States with participation from the United Kingdom and Canada, that produced the first atomic bomb during World War II.

Rosie the Riveter

a cultural icon of the United States, representing the American women who worked in factories during World War II, many of whom produced munitions and war supplies. These women sometimes took entirely new jobs replacing the male workers who were in the military. Rosie the Riveter is commonly used as symbol of feminism and women's economic power

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