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Hormones & Glands

Endocrine System

slower to respond, long-lasting effects, hormones & target tissues, hypothalamus

Nervous System

fast acting, nerve impulses, hypothalamus

Pituitary gland

master gland

Thyroid

secretes thyroxin, controls metabolic rate

Testies

testosterone/androgens

Parathyroid

for glands embedded in the thyroid; secretes parathormone; controls announces level of calcium and phosphate (which influence levels of excitability)

Adrenal

gland which increases heart rate, blood pressure, and breathing rate

Pancreas

located partially behind the stomach in the abdomen, and it functions as both an endocrine and exocrine gland. It produces digestive enzymes as well as insulin and glucagon

Ovaries

located one on each side of the uterus in the female pelvis, functioning to secrete estrogen and progesterone

Thymus

the primary gland of the lymphatic system, located within the mediastinum; helps maintain the body's immune response by producing T lymphocytes

Steriods

estrogen, testosterone, aldosterone, cortisol, cholesterol

Amino acid-based

Amines, thyroxine, peptide, and protein hormones

Target cells

cells that have receptors for a particular hormone

hormones

chemical messengers that are manufactured by the endocrine glands, travel through the bloodstream, and affect other tissues

Negative feedback mechanisms

The most common homeostatic control mechanism. The net effect is that the output of the system shuts off the original stimulus or reduces its intensity.

Pineal body

a structure found between the cerebral hemispheres of vertebrates; secretes melatonin

Oxytocin

stimulates contraction of uterus and the milk "letdown" reflex; pituitary

ADH

hormone that increases the reabsorption of water; pituitary

Growth hormone

a hormone produced by the anterior pituitary gland, Stimulates growth and metabolism

Prolactin

Stimulates milk production; anterior pituitary

Thyroxine

hormone produced by the thyroid glands to regulate metabolism

Calcitonin

reduces blood calcium level; thyroid

PTH

increases blood calcium level; parathyroid

Insulin

Pancreas; protein hormone that helps to decrease blood sugar

Glucagon

a hormone secreted by the pancreas, Raises blood glucose

Testosterone

affects masculinization and reproduction; testies

Androgens

Support sperm formation; development and maintenance of male secondary sex characteristics; testies

Estrogens

stimulate uterine lining growth; development and maintenance of female secondary sex characteristics

Progesterone

promotes growth of uterine lining; Ovaries

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