(p. 373) Formed Convention People's Party (CPP). He led Ghana after its independence. Is later kicked out of power after the government's political status turns authoritarian.
Convention People's Party (CPP)
(p. 373) Nationalists. This political organization was founded by Kwame Nkrumah. Wanted "self-government now".
(p. 373) A Christian tribe from the South East. One of the three main ethnic groups that banded together (federated system) to organize the newly founded government independence in Nigeria. This tribe starts the Biafran Civil war because they want their own country.
An African tribe from South West Nigeria. Typically farmers, of a native religion.
Islamic tribe in Nigeria (one of the three main ethnic groups).
Republic of Biafra
(p. 374) This nation only existed during the Biafran civil war (is now currently considered Nigeria).
(p. 374) 1967, Igbos attempted to secede and establish their own nation. Civil war followed (bloody violence & extreme hardship).
(p. 377-78) Leader of the Kenyan African Union (KAU).
Kenyan African Union (KAU)
(p. 377-78) Kenyan Nationalist movement, pro-Black rights and roles in government.
Mau Mau Uprising
(p. 377-78) An uprising against the British. Begins with the Kikuyu people (Western Kenya) and African efforts for independence against the British. The Africans involved end up in concentration camps. The British in the end grant them independence after "winning the struggle".
(p. 379) A strict racial separation system enforced by the government to keep ethnic backgrounds separate from each other.
African National Congress (ANC)
(p. 380) Nationalistic group that wanted a unified and racially integrated society in South Africa. Led the struggle of non violent tactics and passive resistance against apartheid. Protested for the end of apartheid and equal rights.
(p. 380) Violent government response to protesting against apartheid.
Leader of the African National Congress. Imprisoned because he believes in apartheid and later is released and works with F.W. de Klerk to plan South Africans future without apartheid.
(p. 488) Schoolchildren protest against the Afrikaans language being used in schools and the Bantu Education Act.
(p. 488) A student and nationalist leader killed after protesting against the government.
(p. 488) A critic of apartheid, who won the Nobel Peace Prize, gaining Africa international attention.
F.W. de Klerk
(p. 572) Leader of the white apartheid government. Later works with Nelson Mandela to end apartheid and figure out South Africa without apartheid.
Argentina, Brazil, & Chile (mid-1970s -- early 1980) a war in which the military killed thousands of alleged subversives, waged by these countries' military regimes against their own citizens-- included mass arrests, systematic use of torture-- left an enduring collective memory of state repression and violence.
Shrink state expenditures as much as possible and thereby minimize government's interference and involvement in the free play of market forces.
Institutional Revolutionary Party (PRI)
Political party introduced in 1929 in Mexico that helped to introduce democracy and maintain political stability for much of the 20th century.
Most destructive use of force against Mexicans by the government since Mexican Revolution. Became an important historical memory for modern Mexican politics advocating political reform in the one-party rule of Mexican politics.
Argentina ruler, later arrested and jailed. Mass demonstrations by the city's unions soon gained him release.
(p. 438) Argentine took back the Islas Malvinas via force, causing the British to organize a major task force to smash the Argentinians and retake the land, creating this war.
(p. 438) Marxist Chilean leader
Chilean dictator responsible for instituting reforms set out by the Chicago Boys. His leadership was supported by the US.
Nicaraguan family dictatorship/dynasty.
(p. 343) 1979, this event in Nicaragua enabled traditional elites in other Central American countries to maintain their power. Resulted in a series of brutal civil wars in Guatemala, El Salvador, Honduras, and Nicaragua.
Forces in Honduras composed mainly of former Somocista National Guardsmen; mined Nicaraguan harbors; imposed a devastating trade embargo; and launched an extensive perception management program at home.
Cuban dictator supported by the US. Because of his corrupt regime, was over thrown by guerrilla warfare supporters during the Cuban Revolution.
Socialist Cuban leader who overthrew the Cuban dictatorship before him.
Bay of Pigs
April 1961, US CIA lands on Cuban land in an attempt to overthrow Fidel Castro, but ends up being a complete failure.
Cuban Missile Crisis
US discovers that the USSR has placed missiles capable of hitting the US in Cuba. Kennedy demands the removal.
Revolutionary leader, believed "a small group of dedicated revolutionaries could ignite a social explosion among the rural poor". Was captured by Bolivian military and executed.