Substance that cant be broken down into simpler chemical substances.
Positively charged center of an atom composed of neutrons and positively charged protons,and surrounded by negatively charged electrons.
Negatively charged particle which surrounds the nucleus
Atoms of the same element that have different numbers of neutrons in the nucleus.
Group of atoms held by the covalent bonds; has no overall change.
All of the chemical reactions that occur within an organism.
Substances required in a chemical reaction.
A mixture in which one or more substances(solute) are distributed evenly in another substance (solvent).
Measure of how acidic or basic a solution is.
-The scale ranges from below 0 to above 14
-Solution with pH above 7 is basic and a pH below 7 is acidic.
Any substance that forms hydroxide ions in water and had a pH above 7.
Molecule with an unequal distribution of change,resulting in the molecule having a positive end and a negative end.
-The most important monosaccharide is Glucose.
Composed of complex sugar.
Composed of more than 10 monosaccharide.
-Double bond prevents fat molecules from packing together.
-Tend to be liquid at room temperature.
-Comes mainly from plant & fish sources like peas,beans,and nuts.
Covalent bond formed between amino acids.
Subunits of nucleic acid formed from simple sugar,a phosphate group,and a nitrogenous group.
Something that stands or represents for something else.
Positively charged particle.
-Located in the nucleus.
The area around the nucleus,and contains negatively charged electrons.
Substance composed of atoms of of two or more different elements that are chemically combined.
Atom or group of atoms that gain or lose electrons; has an electrical charge.
A shorthand way to represent a chemical compound
-Chemical formula for glucose is C6H12O6
In a chemical reaction the substances produced are the products.
The substance that is dissolved in a solvent to make a solution
Any substance that forms hydrogen ions in water and has a pH below 7.
Weak chemical bond formed by the attraction of positively charged hydrogen atoms to other negatively charged atoms.
Large organic compounds made mostly of carbon and hydrogen with a small amount of oxygen.
-Examples are fats, oils, waxes ,and steroids
-Are insoluble in water and used by cells for energy storage,insulation, and protective coating, such as in membranes.
Functions: insulate the body, provides the body with heat and energy, energy storage, membrane formation, protective coverings, and vitamins and hormones.
-Long linear chains of polypeptide, made of amino acids
-Types of proteins include structural, regulatory, contractile, transport, storage, protective, membrane, toxins, and enzymes
Functions: Growth of new cells, repair of damaged cells, production of heat and energy, manufacture of enzymes hormones, and antibodies.
Type of protein found in all living things that changes the rate of chemical reactions.
Smallest particle of an element that has the characteristics of that element; basic building block of all matter.
A subatomic particle that has no charge and that is found in the nucleus of an atom
The first energy level can hold 2 electrons.
The second energy level can hold 8 electrons.
The third energy level can hold 18 electrons.
Chemical bond formed when two atoms share electrons.
Chemical bond formed by the attractive forces between two ions of opposite charge.
Combination of substances in which the individual components retain their own properties.
Organic compound used by cells to store and release energy, composed of carbon, hydrogen, and oxygen
Compounds with the same simple formula but different three-dimensional structures resulting in different physical and chemical properties.
-No double bonds
-Solid at room temperature
-Come mainly from animal sources: meat, eggs,milk
Basic building blocks of protein molecules
Complex bio-molecules, such as RNA and DNA, that store cellular information in the cells in the form of a code.
The most common lipids are made of?
The most common lipid is made of 3 fatty acids joined to a
What factors affect enzyme function?
What factors affect reaction rate?
What are the three parts of the nucleotide?
List the 4 unique properties of water.
What is the function of starch?
What is the function of glycogen?
What indicator is used to test for the presence of starch and what is a positive test result?
What indicator is used to test for the presence of simple sugars and what is a positive test result?
What indicator is used to test for the presence of protein and what is a positive test result?
What method is used to test for the presence of lipids and what is a positive test result?
List examples of carbohydrates, lipids/fats, proteins, and nucleic acids:
Lipids: fats, oils, waxes ,and steroids
Proteins: structural, regulatory, contractile, transport, storage, protective, membrane, toxins, and enzymes
Nucleic acids: DNA and RNA
List the function of carbohydrates, lipids/fats, proteins, and nucleic acids:
Lipids: insulate the body, provides the body with heat and energy, energy storage, membrane formation, protective coverings, and vitamins and hormones.
Protein: Growth of new cells, repair of damaged cells, production of heat and energy, manufacture of enzymes hormones, and antibodies.
Nucleic acids: energy carriers, co-enzymes, chemical messengers, building block of all nucleic acids.
Describe the structure of carbohydrates ,lipids/fats, proteins, and nucleic acids:
Carbohydrates: chains of carbon units, hydroxyl groups attached
Lipids: chains of many methyl units
Nucleic Acids: made up of a sugar, phosphate groups , and a nitrogenous base.
Proteins: long linear chains of polypeptide, made of amino acids. Held together by Peptide bonds.
-Primary structure: linear order of amino acid chains, sequence of amino acids, unique for each protein, and dictates the second and tertiary structure.
-Secondary structure: helices (tightly wond coils),pleated sheets, helices and pleated sheets add structure.
-Tertiary structure: further bonding and interactions between amino acids, gives the whole protein its overall 3D structure essential for function
-Quaternary structure: will form multi-subunit structures with other proteins to form one large protein.