Spring Anatomy CH 21 Immune System

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immune system

consists of diverse molecules and immune cells that make up lymphoid tissue

non-specific defense

responds quickly and consists of:
i. first line of defense- skin and mucosa prevent entry of microorganisms, external barrier
ii. second line of defense- antimicrobial proteins, phagocytes, and other cells

specific defense

iii. third line of defense- mounts attack against particular foreign substances

surface barrier

skin, mucous membranes, and their secretions make up the first line of defense; keratin and mucosa

keratin

presents a physical barrier to most microorganisms, resistant to weak acids and bases, bacterial enzymes, and toxins

epithelial chemical barriers

epithelial membranes produce protective chemicals that destroy microoganisms; skin acidity 3 to 5 pH which inhibits bacterial growth

respiratory tract mucosa

mucous-coated hairs in the nose trap inhaled particles, ciliated- cilia sweep dust and bacteria away from lower respiratory passages swallowed and enters stomach

neutrophils

WBC, phagocytic, wanders through loose connective tissue, absorb oxygen to form Hydrogen Peroxide and hyperchlorite which are both highly toxic

eosinophils

WBC, attacks worms such as tapeworms, produces hydrogen peroxide and toxic proteins that act as neurotoxins

basophils

WBC, secrete chemicals that activate neutrophils and eosinophils, release histamine that increases blood flow by vasodilation, secretes heparin that inhibits formation of blood clots that would impede leukocyte mobility

lymphocyte

WBC, T-cells 80%, B-cells 15%, NK cells 5%

monocyte

WBC, transform to macrophages, microglial cells in nervous tissue, kupffer cells in the liver, alveolar cells in the lung

antimicrobial proteins

enhance the innate defenses by attacking microorganisms directly and hindering microorganisms' ability to oreproduce
EX. interferon, complement proteins

interferon

genes that synthesize IFN are activated when a host cell is invaded by a virus, leave the infected cell and enter neighboring cells

IFN alpha

1st drug to have some success treating hepatitis C genital warts

IFN beta

treat patients with multiple sclerosis

complement

30 or so proteins that circulate in the blood in an inactive form. major mechanism for destroying foreign substances in the body, synthesized in the liver

classical pathway

linked to the immune system, depends on the binding of antibodies to invade organisms

alternative and lectin pathway

require no antibodies and belong to non-specific defenses

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