King of France (1774-1792). In 1789 he summoned the Estates-General, but he did not grant the reforms that were demanded and revolution followed. Louis and his queen, Marie Antoinette, were executed in 1793.
queen of France, Louis XVI's wife who was hated. Her extravagance and opposition to reform contributed to the overthrow of the monarchy; she was guillotined along with her husband (1755-1793)
The Estates General
Consultative assembly that represented the 3 legally defined classes: 1st- Clergy. 2nd- Nobility. 3rd- Peasants, Middle Class, Urban Workers.
The National Assembly
A group of Third Estate delegates that broke ties with the Estates General. Drafted a constitution for France at the Oath of the Tennis court. Marked the first stage of the revolution.
July 14, 1789 when a Paris mob stormed this fortress prison. Marked the beginning of the French Revolution
French revolutionary leader (born in Switzerland) who was a leader in overthrowing the Girondists and was stabbed to death in his bath by Charlotte Corday (1743-1793)
L'Ami du Peuple
newspaper edited by Jean-Paul Marat that translated to friend of the people
French revolutionary heroine (a Girondist) who assassinated Marat in hopes of stopping violence (1768-1793)
nobles and others who left France during peasant uprisings and who hoped to come back to the old system
Paper currency, the French churches were used as collateral -the first French paper currency issued by the General Assembly
The Civil Constitution of the Clergy
document which brought the Church under the control of the French government by having the people pick the bishops and priests and by having the government pay the clergy
French revolutionary leader who stormed the Paris bastille and who supported the execution of Louis XVI but was guillotined by Robespierre for his opposition to the Reign of Terror (1759-1794)
Olympe de Gouges
French journalist who published the declaration of rights of women and the female citizens.
Radical republicans during the French Revolution. They were led by Maximilien Robespierre from 1793 to 1794.
the lower class who wore trousers instead of short pants, hence the name. They wanted lower prices on food, a democracy, political and economical equality, they also made up the revolutionary army.
A moderate political party that emerged in revolutionary France after the fall of the monarchy in 1792 when the Jacobins split into two factions. They were members of the professional class (lawyers and merchants) who wanted a constitutional government, opposed the growing influence of Parisian militants, and championed the smaller provinces beyond the city of Paris. They agreed the king was guilty of treason but were reluctant to execute him, arguing for exile or a referendum on his fate. They were first to be targeted as the beginning of the Terror.
Declaration of Pilnitz
the king of Prussia and the emperor of Austria threatened to intervene to protect the French monarchy
Counter revolution led by conservative forces (nobles, clergy, and the peasantry).
Led by Danton, Robespierre, Marat, Carnot. Revolutionary tribunal created to try those suspected of counterrevolution. Claimed 16,000 victims through guillotine.
Committee of Public Safety
The leaders under Robespierre who organized the defenses of France, conducted foreign policy, and centralized authority during the period 1792-1795. Instigated the Reign of Terror.
A lawyer and a member of the National Convention who led the most radical phases of the French Revolution; his execution ended the Reign of Terror.
Convention creates a new calendar starting from the year 1 and consisted of a holiday every 10 days. Churches were closed and clergy members were persecuted. The Cathedral of Notre Dame becomes the Temple of Reason.
a revolt in the French Revolution against the excesses of the Reign of Terror. It was triggered by a vote of the Committee of Public Safety to execute Robespierre and several other leading members of the Terror. This ended the most radical phase of the French Revolution. The name refers to 9 Thermidor Year II (27 July 1794), the date according to the French Revolutionary Calendar when this revolt occurred.
New government that followed the revolution that struggled with financial affairs in France. There was much corruption and economic difficulties so it was terminated under Napoleon.
November 9, 1799 when Napoleon overthrew the directory and established a military dictatorship.
general; Emperor of France; he seized power in a coup d'état in 1799; he led French armies in conquering much of Europe, placing his relatives in positions of power. Defeated at the Battle of Waterloo, he was exiled on the island of Elba
Form of government which followed the directory -established by Napoleon-ended when Napoleon was crowned emperor.
This is the agreement between Pope Pius VII and Napoleon that healed the religious division in France by giving the French Catholics free practice of their religion and Napoleon political power
Battle of Trafalgar
an 1805 naval battle in which Napoleon's forces were defeated by a British fleet under the command of Horatio Nelson. Ended Napoleon's plans to invade Britain.
Confederation of the Rhine
A federation of German states organized under Napoleon I in July 1806. Formerly under the rule of the Holy Roman Empire, which was dissolved the same year, the new federation placed itself under the "protection" of Napoleon and was governed by one of his close allies. It quickly fell apart after Napoleon's defeat outside Russia in 1813 as member states abandoned the French and joined the German nationalist "war of liberation."
a citizen who fights as a soldier only in times of war
This was the civil code put out by Napoleon that granted equality of all male citizens before the law and granted absolute security of wealth and private property and religious freedom. Napoleon also secured this by creating the Bank of France which loyally served the interests of both the state and the financial oligarchy
Part of make-believe parliamentary institution set up under Consulate. Through universal male suffrage a list of notables was elected and from this list government could choose ministers. But in reality, power was with the First Consul - Napoleon.
Napoleon's policy of preventing trade between Great Britain and continental Europe, intended to destroy Great Britain's economy.
a conflict, lasting from 1808 to 1813, in which Spanish rebels, with the aid of British forces, fought to drive Napoleon's French troops out of Spain.
Was Napoleon's foreign minister. Had been a Bishop of Toulouse during the Old Regime and "on board" during the early days of the French Revolution but avoided the dangers of the Terror by being in America at that time. He supported the rise of Napoleon and became a minister and adviser. Talleyrand was not entirely faithful to Napoleon. He was a political survivor; out to maintain his own safety. During the French-Russian alliance he had even confided in Alexander I that he thought Napoleon was overextending himself and that it was best for the tsar to just bide his time. He would later be France's representative at the Congress of Vienna.
Napoleons army of over 600,000 men who invaded Russia
King of France (1814-1824). His reign was interrupted by Napoleon (1815), but he returned to power after Napoleon's defeat at Waterloo in the same year. Accepted Napoleonic Code of equality before the law.
Charter (France 1814)
Passed by Louis XVIII, it recognized equality before the law, accepted the Napoleanic Code, granted freedom of the press and established The Chamber of Deputies and The Chamber of Peers.
After Napoleon returned to power from Elba, he was only popular and in power again for 100 daysbefore being exiled to St. Helena for life.
The site of Napoleon's defeat by British and Prussian armies in 1815, which ended his power and rule.
place of napoleons second/last exile and death
Napoleon's brother, made king of Spain but unable to control the Spanish which led to the costly Peninsula War.
Jacques Louis David
French neoclassical painter who actively supported the French Revolution (1748-1825)
who? England, Prussia, Russia, and Austria
what? the four strongest countries in Europe
when? After Napoleons reign
why? They were the four most powerful countries in all of Europe
Duke of Wellington
British soldier and statesman; he led the British troops against Napoleon at the Battle of Waterloo and defeated him.