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What do a ruby,gold nigget,& grain of salt all have in common?

they're minerals pf Earth's crust.

What substances are the basic materials of Earth's crust?

a ruby, gold nugget & grain of salt


a natural, inorganic solid that has characteristics of chemical composition, an orderly internal structure.

To determine if a substance is a mineral or a nonmineral, scientist ...

ask 4 basic questions.

Scientists determine that a substance is a mineral when the answer to

all 4 questions is yes.

What is an inorganic substance?

one that is not made up of living things or the remains of living things.

Which of the following is a question scientist ask to determine if a substance is a mineral?

does the substance occur naturally?

Why is obsidian not a mineral?

the atoms are not arranged in a regularly repeating crystalline structure.

what is the fourth question scientists ask to determine if a substance is a mineral?

Does it have a consistent chemical composition?

how many different kinds of minerals have scientists identified?

more than 3,000

how many minerals are common?

fewer than 20

the common minerals are called ..

rock-forming minerals

which of the following are among the 10 most common minerals?

quartz, gypsu, halite

what are two main groups of minerals?

silicate and nonsilicate

basis for classifying minerals into 2 different groups?

chemical composition of the minerals

silicate mineral

mineral that contains a combination of silicon, and oxygen.

what 2 atoms are found in the mineral, quartz?

silicon and oxygen

most common silicate minerals?

feldspar and orthoclase

determines what type of feldspar will form

depends on which metal combines with silicon and oxygen atoms.

ferromagnesian minerals are rich in

Iron and magnesium metals

96% of Earth's crust is made up of

silicate minerals


compounds that contain a carbonate group


compounds that consist of chlorine or fluorine combined with sodium, potassium, or calcium

native elements

elements uncombined with other elements


compounds that contain oxygen and an element other than silicon


compounds that contain a sulfate group


compounds that consist of one or more elements combined with sulfur.

nonsilicate minerals

mineral that doesn't contain compounds of silicon and oxygen

6 major groups of non silicate minerals

carbonates,halides, native elements, oxides, sulfates, sulfides

what do all minerals in Earth's crust have?

a crystalline structure

what characterizes each type of mineral crystal?

a specific geometric arrangements of atoms


crystal is a solid whose atoms, ions, or molecules are arranged on a regular, repeating pattern

each type of mineral crystal is characterized by what?

a specific geometric arrangement of atoms

what hinders growth of single, large crystals?

conditions under which minerals storm

as a result of the conditions under which minerals form, minerals are commonly made up of

masses of crystals that are so small, you can see them only with a microscope.

if a crystal forms where the surrounding material is not restrictive, how will the mineral develop?

as a single, large crystal that has one of 6 basic crystal shapes.

knowing crystal shapes is helpful

because it helps in identifying the minerals.

the crystalline structure of silicate minerals is

made up of the same basic building blocks

what does each building block of the crystalline structure if silicate minerals have?

4 oxyge atoms arranged in a pyramid with one silicon atom in the center

how many sides does the basic building block of the crystalline structure of silicate minerals have?


what is the basic building bloc of the crystalline structure of silicate minerals called?

silicon-oxygen tetrahedron

what is true of silicon-oxygen tetrahedra?

they combine in different arrangements to form different silicates

the various arrangements of the silicon-oxygen tetrahedra are a result of

the kinds of bonds that form between the oxygen atoms of the tetrahedra and other atoms

the oxygen and silicon atoms of the tetrahedra may bond with

atoms of neighboring tetrahedra, and bonds may form between the oxygen atoms and other elements outside the tetrahedra

why do non silicate minerals show a variety of crystalline structures?

because non silicate minerals have diverse chemical positions

what are common crystal structures for non silicate minerals

cubes, hexagonal prisms, irregular masses

non silicate may form

tetrahedra that are similar to those in silicates

what is true of the ions in the center of non silicate tetrahedra?

they are not silicon

how can classes of non silicate minerals be divided into smaller groups?

based on the structural similarities of the mineral's crystals

what determines a non silicate's characteristics?

the structure if a non silicate crystal

native elements have very high densities because

their crystal structures are based on the packing of atoms as close together as possible

closet packing

each metal atom is surrounded by 8 to 12 other metal atoms that are as close to each other as the changes at the atomic nuclei will allow

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