What do a ruby,gold nigget,& grain of salt all have in common?
they're minerals pf Earth's crust.
What substances are the basic materials of Earth's crust?
a ruby, gold nugget & grain of salt
a natural, inorganic solid that has characteristics of chemical composition, an orderly internal structure.
To determine if a substance is a mineral or a nonmineral, scientist ...
ask 4 basic questions.
Scientists determine that a substance is a mineral when the answer to
all 4 questions is yes.
What is an inorganic substance?
one that is not made up of living things or the remains of living things.
Which of the following is a question scientist ask to determine if a substance is a mineral?
does the substance occur naturally?
Why is obsidian not a mineral?
the atoms are not arranged in a regularly repeating crystalline structure.
what is the fourth question scientists ask to determine if a substance is a mineral?
Does it have a consistent chemical composition?
how many different kinds of minerals have scientists identified?
more than 3,000
how many minerals are common?
fewer than 20
the common minerals are called ..
which of the following are among the 10 most common minerals?
quartz, gypsu, halite
what are two main groups of minerals?
silicate and nonsilicate
basis for classifying minerals into 2 different groups?
chemical composition of the minerals
mineral that contains a combination of silicon, and oxygen.
what 2 atoms are found in the mineral, quartz?
silicon and oxygen
most common silicate minerals?
feldspar and orthoclase
determines what type of feldspar will form
depends on which metal combines with silicon and oxygen atoms.
ferromagnesian minerals are rich in
Iron and magnesium metals
96% of Earth's crust is made up of
compounds that contain a carbonate group
compounds that consist of chlorine or fluorine combined with sodium, potassium, or calcium
elements uncombined with other elements
compounds that contain oxygen and an element other than silicon
compounds that contain a sulfate group
compounds that consist of one or more elements combined with sulfur.
mineral that doesn't contain compounds of silicon and oxygen
6 major groups of non silicate minerals
carbonates,halides, native elements, oxides, sulfates, sulfides
what do all minerals in Earth's crust have?
a crystalline structure
what characterizes each type of mineral crystal?
a specific geometric arrangements of atoms
crystal is a solid whose atoms, ions, or molecules are arranged on a regular, repeating pattern
each type of mineral crystal is characterized by what?
a specific geometric arrangement of atoms
what hinders growth of single, large crystals?
conditions under which minerals storm
as a result of the conditions under which minerals form, minerals are commonly made up of
masses of crystals that are so small, you can see them only with a microscope.
if a crystal forms where the surrounding material is not restrictive, how will the mineral develop?
as a single, large crystal that has one of 6 basic crystal shapes.
knowing crystal shapes is helpful
because it helps in identifying the minerals.
the crystalline structure of silicate minerals is
made up of the same basic building blocks
what does each building block of the crystalline structure if silicate minerals have?
4 oxyge atoms arranged in a pyramid with one silicon atom in the center
how many sides does the basic building block of the crystalline structure of silicate minerals have?
what is the basic building bloc of the crystalline structure of silicate minerals called?
what is true of silicon-oxygen tetrahedra?
they combine in different arrangements to form different silicates
the various arrangements of the silicon-oxygen tetrahedra are a result of
the kinds of bonds that form between the oxygen atoms of the tetrahedra and other atoms
the oxygen and silicon atoms of the tetrahedra may bond with
atoms of neighboring tetrahedra, and bonds may form between the oxygen atoms and other elements outside the tetrahedra
why do non silicate minerals show a variety of crystalline structures?
because non silicate minerals have diverse chemical positions
what are common crystal structures for non silicate minerals
cubes, hexagonal prisms, irregular masses
non silicate may form
tetrahedra that are similar to those in silicates
what is true of the ions in the center of non silicate tetrahedra?
they are not silicon
how can classes of non silicate minerals be divided into smaller groups?
based on the structural similarities of the mineral's crystals
what determines a non silicate's characteristics?
the structure if a non silicate crystal
native elements have very high densities because
their crystal structures are based on the packing of atoms as close together as possible
each metal atom is surrounded by 8 to 12 other metal atoms that are as close to each other as the changes at the atomic nuclei will allow