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Thomas Edison

invented light bulb, putting electric lighting into American Homes

Alexander Graham Bells

his telephone linked urban people in a network of instant communication

Chicago Fire

1871, the rebuilding that started immediately after the fire spurred Chicago's development into one of the most populous economically important cities.

Frederick Law Olmstead

landscape architecture - Niagara Reservation, Central Park, Prospect Park

Political machines

a party organization headed by a single boss or small autocratic group that commands enough votes to maintain political administrative control of a city, country or state.

Boss Tweed

American politician most notable for being the "boss" of Tammany Hall. Third largest land owner in NYC. Director of Erie Canal and 10th National Bank and more.

Tammany Hall

Democratic party political machine.. Played a major role in controlling NYC and NYS politics and helping immigrants rise of in American politics. 1790s to 1960s.

William Randolph Hearst

business magnate and leading newspaper publisher.

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