CM Level 9

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92 terms

Modes

Ionian, Dorian, Phrygian, Lydian, Mixolydian, Aeolian, Locrian

Phrygian

E

Mixolydian

G

Diatonic Half Step

Half step that is written using two different letter names

Chromatic Half Step

Half step that is written using the same letter name

Figured Bass Symbols for Major Scale

I ii iii IV V vi vii(dim)

Figured Bass Symbols for Minor Scale

i ii(dim) III(aug) iv V VI vii(dim)

Scale degree names

Tonic, Supertonic, Mediant, Subdominant, Dominant, Submediant, Leading Tone

Dominant Seventh Chord

Major triad with minor 3rd

Major Seventh Chord

Major triad with major 3rd

Minor Seventh Chord

Minor triad with minor 3rd

Half Diminished Seventh Chord

Diminished triad with major 3rd

Diminished Seventh Chord

Diminished triad with minor 3rd

Authentic Cadence

V-I

Plagal Cadence

IV-I

Half Cadence

Ends in V

Deceptive Cadence

V or IV-vi

Hemiola

When the meter changes from two pulses per measure to three pulses

Texture

How the voices are put together

Contrapuntal/Polyphonic Texture

Two or more parts of equal importance

Motive

Short group of notes used in a piece of music

Theme

An entire phrase of music which is the basis of the composition

Fugue

A style of composition in which three or more voices follow one another in an imitative manner

Subject (Fugue)

The main theme of the fugue; The first voice to enter

Countersubject (Fugue)

A different melody from the subject, which occurs at the same time as the subject

Exposition (Fugue)

The opening section, containing all voices in their entirety

Answer (Fugue)

The first occurrence of the transposed subject

Episode (Fugue)

A section in which the subject is not present, but instead is made up of new material, or motives based on the subject

Dances of the Baroque Suite

Allemande, Courante/Corrente, Sarabande, Optional Dances (Minuet, Bouree, Gavotte, Passepied, Polonaise, Anglaise, Loure, or Air), Gigue

Allemande

A dance in moderate 4/4 time of German origin, with a short upbeat

Courante

French dance in moderate 3/2 or 6/4 time, with frequent hemiola

Corrente

Italian dance in quick triple meter

Sarabande

A dance in slow triple meter and dignified style

Minuet

A French country dance in 3/4 meter

Bouree

A French dance, usually in quick duple meter

Gavotte

A French dance in moderate duple meter, with an upbeat of two quarter notes, and phrases usually beginning and ending in the middle of the measure

Passepied

A spirited dance in quick 3/8 or 6/8 meter

Polonaise

A Polish dance of stately and festive character, in moderate triple meter

Anglaise

A dance in fast duple meter, derived from the English country dance

Loure

Derived from term for bagpipe, dance in moderate 6/4 time with dotted rhythms and heavy downbeats

Air

A song with melodic characteristics

Gigue

Originated from English Jigs

French Gigue

In compound duple meter, fugal texture

Italian Giga

Quicker than French Gigue, non-fugal

Normal scheme for movements of a sonata

Allegro, Adagio, Scherzo/Minuet, Allegro/Presto

Allegro movement

Sonata Allegro form

Adagio movement

Binary or ternary form, in a different but related key to first movement

Scherzo/Minuet movement

Ternary form, in the same key as first movement

Allegro/Presto movement

Rondo form or variations, in the same key as first movement

Exposition

Theme 1 (Tonic) Theme 2 (Dominant/Related Key)

Development

Motives based on themes 1 and 2 are developed in various ways

Recapitulation

Theme 1 (Tonic) Theme 2 (Tonic)

Allargando

Broadening

Con Fuoco

With fire

Doloroso

Sorrowfully

Enharmonic

Two names for the same pitch

Giocoso

With humor

Gracioso

Gracefully

Molto

Much; very

Parallel Major/Minor

Major and minor with the same letter names

Pesante

Heavily

Rallentando

gradually slower

Relative Major/Minor

Major and minor with the same key signature

Ritenuto

Immediately Slower

Sempre

Always

Senza

Without

Smorzando

Dying away

Sostenuto

Sustained

Sotto voce

In a low voice

Toccata

A virtuoso piece common during the Baroque Period, written in free style with many scales and rapid passages

Tre Corde

Release the Una Corda pedal

Una Corda

Press soft pedal

Baroque

1600-1750

Classical

1750-1830

Romantic

1830-1900

Contemporary

1900-Present

Characteristics of Baroque Period

Polyphonic texture, use of ornamentation, improvisation, dance suite, music written for harpsichord, clavichord, and organ, terraced dynamics

Baroque Composers

Corelli, Purcell, Rameau, J.S. Bach, Frescobaldi, Handel, Kirnberger, Scarlatti, Soler, Telemann, Vivaldi

Characteristics of Classical Period

Homophonic texture, obvious cadence points, alberti bass, sonata form

Classical Composers

Beethoven, Haydn, Mozart, Clementi, Czerny, Diabelli, Kuhlau, J.C. Bach, C.P.E. Bach, Salieri

Characteristics of Romantic Period

Programme music, complicated harmonies, lyric melodies, complicated rhythms

Romantic Composers

Brahms, Liszt, Tchaikovsky, Chopin, Dvorak, Field, Grieg, Heller, Mendelssohn, Schubert, Schumann

Characteristics of Impressionism

Unclear tonalities, non-metric rhythms, musically blurred images, use of whole tone scales, pentatonic scales

Impressionist Composers

Debussy, Ravel, Griffes

Characteristics of Contemporary Period

Atonality, bitonality, polytonality, quartal harmony, irregular meters, polyphonic texture, neoclassical writing, serial/twelve-tone music

Contemporary Composers

Copland, Ives, Gershwin, Bartok, Britten, Della-Joio, Kabalevsky, Poulenc, Prokofiev, Shostakovich, Stravinsky

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