skeletal, muscular, digestive, nervous, cardiovascular, integumentary, urinary, edocrine, lymphatic (immune), reproductive (genital), Respiratory
11 body systems
head, neck, thorax, abdomen, pelvis, upper limbs, lower limbs
7 body regions
membrane that surrounds the organ.
membrane that covers the wall of the cavity.
support, protect, movement, storage, stem cell source
Functions of the bones (5)
a bone that is wider than it is long.
a bone that is longer than it is wide.
a bone that is relatively flat (sternum, ribs)
a bone that belongs to no other class (vertebrae)
very round bones that form within tendons. (patella)
main part of the bone.
a distinguishable enlargement of a bone which initially ossifies independently of the body.
compact bone tissue
solid and dense; comprises the cortical part of bones.
spongy (cancellous) bone tissue
spongy, trabeculated appearance; comprises the interior of many bones, especially the end of long bones.
a fibrous neurovascular membrane which covers the external surfaces (except articular surfaces) of all bones.
Growth, repair, nutrition, and sensibility
Functions of the periosteum (4)
nutrient canals and foramina
passageway for blood vessels into the interior of a bone.
the hollow interior of the shaft of many long bones.
"soft spots" of the cranium of infants; present at the site of unossified membrane bones.
lines the medullary cavity.
specialized spongy bone in the cranial vault. (thicker struts)
space between the diaphysis and epiphysis (right under the head) fuses (only in long bones)
any prominence or prolongation.
an abrupt or pointed projection
a hook shaped projection
a relatively small, rounded eminence.
a relatively large, rough eminence.
a depression or indentation
a small, shallow pit or depression.
a passage or channel; the external opening of a canal
an elongated, tubular passage
a narrow deep cleft or slit.
a slight, linear ridge
a prominent, linear ridge.
rounded, articular part of a bone.
constricted part joining head to remainder of a bone.
a usually rounded, articular surface at the end of a bone
a smooth, articular surface.
mesenchyme differentiates directly into bone tissue.
mesenchyme differentiates into cartilage, which is replaced by bone tissue.
primary ossification center.
proximal and distal epiphyses
secondary ossification centers.
a union of two or more bones.
the joined bones are held together by fibrous connective tissue.
slight amount of connective tissue between the joined bones; immovable joints; found only in the skull.
the skeletal parts, close together or far apart, are united by fibrous connective tissue structures called ligaments. usually function to limit movements or prevent undesired movements at cartilaginous or synovial joints.
specialized joints- bind teeth to bony sockets.
joined bones are held together by some type of cartilage.
slightly moveable joints; hyaline cartilage/costal cartilage (ribs-sternum)
slightly movable joints; composed of fibrocartilage; present only in the median plane of the body. (intervertebral discs, pubic symphysis.
typically, freely moveable; component of bones are separated but held together by fibrous connective tissue structures.
features of this joint: the articular surfaces of the articulating bones are covered by articular cartilage (hyaline/fibrocartilage), a fibrous articular capsule, a synovial membrane, a synovial cavity, often includes accessory ligaments, and sometimes an articular disc or menisci.
gliding (plane) joint
limited translational movement permitted; articular surfaces are essentially flat. (intercarpal joints/vertebrae)
movement possible around only one axis.
movement around a transverse axis (elbow) (humero-ulnar joint)
movement around a longitudinal axis. (1st and 2nd vertebrae) allows side to side movement. (proximal radio-ulnar joint)
movement possible around two horizontal axes at right angles to one another, or at any intervening axis between these two axes.
condyloid (ellipsoid) joint
egg in spoon (wrist joint)(radius and ulna)
opposing articular surfaces are saddle shaped. not easily rotated- 2 planes. (thumb)
movement possible around innumerable axes.
ball and socket joint
articular surfaces are complimentary segments of a sphere. (hip/shoulder)
bones held together by bones. can be developed by fibrous, cartilaginous, or synovial joints.
naturally occurring synostoses
pelvic bones, long bone epiphyses, intersacral bodies, mental symphysis, sternal articulations
craniosynostosis, ankylosed articulations from trauma or arthritis.
one surface moves over another without angular, circumduction, or rotational movement. (gliding joints, may occur at others) (one axis, vertebrae, metacarpals.)
a change in the angle between two joined bases
a decrease in the angle between two articulating bones.(hinge, condyloid, saddle and ball and socket joints)
an increase in the angle between two articulating bones. (hinge, condyloid, saddle and ball and socket joints)
movement of a body part in the frontal plane away from the mid-sagittal plane, or in the hand and foot away from the mid-axial line.(condyloid, saddle and ball and socket joints)
movement in the frontal plane toward the mid-sagital plane. (condyloid, saddle and ball and socket joints)
toes are pointed to head, up.
toes pointing down.
sequential combination of flexion, abduction, extension and adduction at a joint; the moved part describes a cone. (condyloid, saddle and ball and socket joints)
movement of a bone at a joint around a longitudinal axis. (pivot and ball and socket joints)
supination (of the hand and forearm)
palm faces anteriorly. (in the anatomical position) or superiorly (with elbow flexed)
pronation (of the hand or forearm)
palms face posteriorly (in the anatomical position) or inferiorly (with elbows flexed)
movement at ankle joints. face plantar surface medially. (sole of foot towards midline)
movement at ankle joints. face plantar surface laterally. (sole out, toe down)
the ability to flex digits to grasp objects.
the ability of the thumb to rotate at the 1st carpometacarpal joint and oppose the pads of the remaining 4 digits.
out (mandible pushed out)
back in (mandible pulled back in)