fertile area in a desert, watered by a natural well or spring
Nomadic Herders were called Arabs or...
Bedouin tribes were ruled by a ...
the title was a sign of respect
prophet of islam
monotheistic sect that muhammed followed
jibreel (gabriel), allah
the angel ___ (archangel ___) ordered muahmmad to preach the word of ___ (arabic for god) to the Arabs.
Stone building with statues of many gods inside
Arabs believed it was built by Abraham
Means cube in Arabic
the place that muhammad was forced to flee from Mecca in 622 ad
what year was the event known as the hijra, hijrah, or hegira occur?
Medina or Al-Medinah
yathrib was later called...
submission to god
islam literally means...
there is no god but god (allah) and muhammad is his prophet
declaration of faith for muslims
a follower of islam
holiest book of islam
most common language in islam religion, law, and literature
declaration of faith (there is no god but god [allah] and muhammad is his prophet), worship 5 times a day facing mecca, give alms or charity to the needy, fast from the first light of day to sunset during the holy month of Ramadan (The month Muhammad had his vision of the Angel Jibreel and received God's revelations), make a pilgrimage to Mecca once in a lifetime, if possible.
name the 5 pillars of islam
a person who recites the call to worship
muhammad's slave that he freed and made him muezzin
the struggle to defend the faith
mosques or masjids
muslim places of worship (have no religious images or statues)
year muhammad died
what is the final authority on all matters?
honesty, generosity, social justice, harsh penalties for stealing and murder
what things does god's message emphasize?
five pillars of islam
Muslims must meet 5 important obligations of worship called the...
Recite the words of the witness or declaration of faith: "THERE IS NO god BUT GOD AND MUHAMMAD IS HIS PROPHET".
Worship 5 times a day facing Mecca, the holy city of Islam. Ritual washing first, then prayer
Give alms or charity (money or food) to the needy
Fast or go without food and drink from the first light of day to sunset during the month of Ramadan (the 9th month of the Muslim year - The month Muhammad had his vision of the Angel Jibreel and received God's revelations)
Make a pilgrimage (religious journey) to Mecca once in a lifetime, if possible.
the Islamic system of law is called...
it is an immense body of law that muslim scholars developed to interpret the Qur'an
humble, tolerant, generous
islamic laws govern meny aspects of life.
muslims are to be...
islamic laws govern meny aspects of life.
muslims are forbidden to drink(?) or to eat........because like the Jews, they thought it was unclean
........was widespread in Arabia
how many wives did islam restrict on the condition that they be treated equally?
an early convert to islam who wanted to continue the prophet's work - also the successor to muhammad
successor to the prophet (term abu bakr used)
people of the book
what did arabs call jews, christians, and zoroastrians, who they were tolerant of? they let them worship because they all have faith in the same god and muhammad taught religious tolerance.
pay extra taxes, put to death
non-muslims who weren't people of the book had to accept islam or ___ ___ ___. if they refused, they were ___ ___ ___.
A group of Arabs located at the western end of the Mediterranean. they converted to islam and went after new territories
what year did general tariq go against the Visigoths in Spain?
in 711, ___ ___ went against the Visigoths in Spain.
jabal tariq, gi'braltar
the rock that general tariq passed in 711 was known as ___ ___ (the mountain of tariq), but later known as ___. (THE ROCK OF GIBRALTAR!)
muslims of spain who were originally berbers
the moors conquered ___ and continuied aggression into france and europe.
battle of tours
the franks defeated the moors at the ___ ___ ___ and drove them back into spain
the moors ruled spain for how many years?
sunni, Qur'an, caliph, authority
the ___ believe that the only intercessor between god and his believers is the ___. they believe that the ___ should be chosen by muslim leaders. this person should be a pious leader but not a religious ___.
shi'ah/shiites, person, qur'an, fatima, ali
the ___/___ believe that a ___, not the ___, is the proper intermediary between God and his believers. the only true successors are muhammad are the descendants of his daughter ___ and his son-in-law ___.
These descendants of muhammad were known as____. it is the person the Shi'ahs looked to as having both the spiritual and secular authority.
___ was the 4th caliph but was assassinated by sunnis. so, many shiites died in battle agaiinst the sunnis. shiites admired ___ as a demonstration of faith.
Muslim Mystics who claimed special knowledge from God and could communicate directly with God. They tried to lead very simple, pious lives centered on God similar to Monks in Monasteries. they Meditated and fasted, had Miraculous powers, and believed faith in God was the only mark of a person's worth. they spread Islam through missionary work
same god, qur'an is a sacred book, and make the hajj
what do the sunnis, shiites, and sufis have in common? remember: The ideas of the Qur'an are basic to all groups. According to Islamic belief, the Qur'an could not contain any errors because God dictated it directly to Muhammad.
god dictated it directly to muhammad
why did the qur'an have no errors?
religous practices, laws, daily life
what are differences between the sunnis, shiites, and sufis. also: 90% of Muslims are Sunni, and most Shiites live in Iran, Lebanon, Iraq and Yemen
___-speaking people invaded the middle east. they were nomadic herders, and were warlike - skillful on horseback.
by what time did the turkish-speaking people covert to islam?
the turkish-speaking people were ruled by a ___ who acted as the ___.
battle of manzikert, 1701
what battle defeated the byzantines in what year? because of this, Byzantines call for aid from Christians in the West and Crusades slowed Turkish expansion
what group captured constantinople in 1453 and made it the capital of the ___ empire? they allowed non-muslims to practice their own religion
communites that religious minorites grouped in under the ottomans. they had some self government, established their own schools, courts, and taxes, and if a muslim committed a crime in their community, they had no authority to judge them.
___ were groups of slaves which organized into an infantry. they were bodyguards of the ___ and became very influential in government (like the praetorian guards in rome)
the muslim empire breaks up into 3 parts or ___
baghdad, cairo, cordova, caliph
what are the caliphates? each one was ruled by a ___.
___ or ___ means dower - not a purchase price for marriage, but a gesture of love. if the woman was to get divorced she keeps the money.
true or false: parents arrange marriages, but women can refuse it.
true or false" Father is the head of the household
true or false: Men are not responsible for economic needs of the family, and security and protection
true or false: father and husband are responsible for the women in all respects - even behavior
___ instructs how all muslims should live
tower, pulpit for the prayer leader
what part of spain is the great mosque in?
a small instrument used to determine latitude and calculated the position of planets and stars that geographers and navigators perfected
they learned papermaking from the ___
al-rasi/rhazes, eye, small pox, measles, encyclopedia
___/___ wrote about surgery diseases of the ___, ___ ___, and ___. he created a medical ___ used for years in europe.
ibn sina/avicenna, canon of medicine,
___/___ was a philosopher and physician. he wrote the ___ _ ___, which is a medical textbook written like an encyclopedia
math, reunion of broken parts
muslims excelled at ___. the perfected algebra as a science. the word algebra comes from al-jabr which means.........
one wife of a muslim ruler that would marry a new bride each night that went in place of her sister. she told stories for 1001 nights and he didn't kill her. the thousand and one arabian nights
sinbad the sailor, aladdin, ali baba and the forty thieves
The Thousand and One (Arabian) Nights included 3 stories..................
they are now a big part of western folklore (translated from arabic)
cordova and toledo
in spain, ___ and ___ were centers of learning
in spain, ___ was a center of art and luxury
700 - 1000
YEAR ............. muslim culture:
***A group "following the letter of the Qur'an" rose to power.
***They opposed free thought and foreign ideas.
-Invaders destroyed the Muslim world.
-Mongols - destroyed cultural centers and killed 5 million people.
where did muslim learning flourish?