1145 Rectum, Anus & prostate

10 terms by mcostakis 

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structure & function 1 of 2

Anus and Rectum
• Anal canal
• Sphincters
• Anal columns
• Anorectal junction
• Anal valve
• Anal crypt
• Rectum

structure & function 2 of 2

• Prostate gland
- Position in pelvis
- Lobes and median sulcus
• Seminal vesicles
• Bulbourethral glands
• Regional structures - Sigmoid colon

Health History Questions

• Usual bowel routine
• Change in bowel habits
• Rectal bleeding or blood in the stool
• Medications (laxatives, stool softeners, iron)
• Rectal conditions (pruritus, hemorrhoids, fissure, fistula)
• Family history (colon cancer)
• Self‐care behaviors (diet of high‐fiber foods, most recent examinations)

Guaiac test container

blood test for stool
examination of the stool for occult (invisible) blood

What is inspected in the perianal area?

• Skin
• Anal opening
• Sacrococcygeal area
• Valsalva maneuver

Palpation of the anus & rectum

• Palpation technique
• Canal wall
• Perianal tissue
• Rectal wall

Palpation of the prostate

- Size
- Shape
- Surface
- Consistency
- Mobility
- Sensitivity

abnormal findings: anus & perianal region

• Pilonidal cyst or sinus
• Anorectal fistula = drainage tunnel → causes constipation & diarrhea
• Fissure (tear) = cause is trauma, hard stool
• Hemorrhoids = cause is constipation
• Rectal prolapse
• Pruritus ani

abnormal findings: rectum

• Abscess
• Rectal polyp
• Fecal impaction
• Carcinoma

abnormal findings: Prostate gland ***test

• Benign prostatic hypertrophy (BPH) = enlarged prostate. 85-90% of all men will experience. Pee standing up
• Prostatitis = infection
• Carcinoma
• Abscess
• Rectal polyp
• Fecal impaction
• Carcinoma

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