World War I (aka WWI, The Great War, the War to End All Wars)
1914-1918, in essence a European Civil War with global implications that was marked by massive casualties, new military technologies, and disillusionment with the idea of "progress"
alliance of Germany, Austria, and Italy
alliance consisting of France, Russia, and Britain
Archduke Franz Ferdinand
heir to the Austrian throne whose assassination by a Serbian nationalist on June 28, 1914 was the spark that ignited World War I
European nation-state that, before World War I began, wanted to create a Pan-Slavic state, but Austria messed that up when they announced that Bosnia was part of Austria
European policy and culture (ideology) of keeping a strong standing army with much support in preparation for war, goes hand in hand with nationalism
Empire that had been a powerful Balkan state for centuries, but by the early 1900s was in decline, leaving the question of who would become powerful in the Balkans. It lost WWI (signed armistice in October 1918) and most of it became Turkey.
joined World War I when its trade was interrupted, President Woodrow Wilson came up with the League of Nations but the country did not join it
new style of fighting wars that caused huge numbers of casualties in WWI, it was a result of industrial technology
the entire population of the states involved in WWI participated in the war effort - government authority expanded, governments used propaganda to get citizens involved, women entered the workforce in large numbers.
Treaty of Versailles 1919
treaty that officially ended World War I; the immense penalties it placed on Germany are regarded as one of the causes of World War II
when the government of the Ottoman Empire killed 1 million Armenians in suspicion that they were working for Russia
League of Nations
international peacekeeping organization proposed by Woodrow Wilson at the close of WWI, but that ultimately failed in preventing another world war
people felt optimistic at the turn of the century because there were many positive changes for them: technology like electricity, cars, and planes increase people's individual power and many used this power politically and socially in revolutions for workers rights, suffrage, representation in government, and fair treatment showed.
by 1914, some of that optimism was gone because of events like the sinking of the Titanic, which showed flaws in all the new technology, and the fact that many people who had come to America for a better life were working long, hard hours in factories. 1914 was when WWI began, although most people were excited for the war.
how much control a person has over their world. increased in the twentieth century because of technologies like electricity, airplanes, and cars. Another form this took was in people demanding more rights: women to vote, better working conditions.
serbian nationalist that assassinated Archduke Franz Ferdinand, one of 8 assassins that didn't like Austria's claim to the territory of Bosnia, which Serbia wanted to create a Pan-Slavic Empire
a major cause of WWI. two alliances formed in WWI: the Triple Alliance (Germany, Austria, Italy) and the Triple Entente (France, England, Russia) because France was against Germany and they both needed support. First France aligned with Russia, on the other side of Germany, so Germany aligned with German-speaking Austria. Both sides wanted Britain for their industrial economy, but Britain was afraid of Germany gaining power and so aligned with France.
a major cause of WWI - because everywhere that could be an overseas colony was taken, newcomer Germany had to take colonies from other European nations if it wanted to expand for raw materials and a market. Thus, Germany threatened Britain's supremacy and created conflict.
a major cause of WWI, it makes people support their nation - my state is the best. this encourages war because it is a chance to prove the superiority of your nation. civic nationalism says that somebody can become a member of the nation, while racial nationalism says that ethnicity and states go together.
The Schlieffen Plan
Germany's war plan to avoid fighting France and Russia at the same time: invade France and capture Paris in under 8 weeks (length to mobilize Russian troops), then move troops to fight Russia
1871 war between France and Germany over the formation of the German Second Reich, which resulted in German control over Alsace-Lorraine (traditionally French) - leading to France wanting it back and revenge. This France vs. Germany rivalry began the web of alliances
American/British ship that was sunk by a German submarine on May 7, 1915 because British military supplies were being transported on it
telegram that the German government sent to their ambassador in Mexico City in January 1917, intercepted and interpreted by British, saying that the Germans would sink every US ship but wanted to keep US neutral - asked Mexicans to attack US from their border
Agreement to stop fighting - not technically a surrender
11 am, November 11, 1918 (11a, 11-11-18)
Germany signs the armistice, war is over
traditionally French territory taken by Germany in the Franco-Prussian War, making France and Germany enemies - this animosity was the basis for the alliances that became the Triple Alliance (Germany) and Triple Entente (France).
The Great Depression 1929-1940
worldwide economic depression that began in 1929 with the New York stock market crash and continued in many areas until the outbreak of World War II
1920s ideology that encouraged people to buy newly available goods
ideology that was a result of prosperity and consumerism in the 1920s, many thought it conflicted with values of community and spirituality
Soviet Union (USSR)
a communist state that avoided unemployment and generated growth by having a state-controlled economy that equally distributed income, this success caused many Americans and Europeans to look towards communism and supported the democratic socialism in Europe
ideology in which the government regulates the economy and equally distributes wealth peacefully and politically, this was what Britain, France, and Sweden did in the face of the Great Depression
The New Deal
a series of reforms enacted by the Franklin Roosevelt administration between 1933 and 1942 with the goal of ending the Great Depression, this marked a point where the government interfered in the economy (differing from traditional capitalism)
American president who enacted a series of reforms he called the New Deal to end unemployment and restore pre-Depression prosperity
Axis Powers: Germany, Italy, Japan
states that hosted highly authoritarian, instensly nationalistic, territorially agressive, and ferociously anti-communist regimes and that were drawn together in a political alliance against the Soviet Union and communism. They tried to "establish and maintain a new order of things" and in doing started WWII
States that typically restrict civil rights in key sectors of society such as political parties and the media but allow some independent activities in commerce and other areas.
Fascist, Nazi, and socialist movements made Italy, Germany, and Japan this
political ideology that spread through Germany and Italy marked by its intense nationalism and authoritarianism. It said that the rights of the individual were not as important as the needs of the state/race (not social contract).
leader of the Italian fascist party who came to power in 1922 as an opponent of communism and democracy and promising order
leader of the German Nazi Party who gained great power of German society by supporting traditional values against Jews, ending the Great Depression in Germany, and glorifying Germans as superior race and culture that needed to be strengthened and purified.
Nazi (National Socialist) Party
Hitler's political party that advocated a strongly authoritarian and nationalist regime based on notions of racial superiority, used violence, was against communism and democracy, wanted to get out of the Treaty of Versailles, and was able to end the Great Depression in Germany. It came to power in Germany in 1933.
Nuremberg Laws 1935
series of laws passed by the Nazi-dominated German parliament that forbade sexual relations between Jews and other Germans and mandated that Jews identify themselves in public by wearing the Star of David
Kristallnacht Nov. 9, 1938
night when Nazi-led gangs smashed and looted Jewish shops throughout Germany
Peace Preservation Law 1925
Japanese law that promised long prison sentences or the death penalty to organizers against the imperial system of government or private property. This was aimed against the growing 'proletarian parties' trying to improve life for the working class and modernize Japan
a movement in Japanese politics 1930-45 that was marked by extreme nationalism, a commitment to elite leadership focused around the emperor, and dedicated to foreign expansion, was against democracy, and arose in part from the Great Depression in Japan.
World War II
global conflict that began with Japanese wanting territory in Asia, which coincided with aggressive German and Italian fascism in Europe lasting from 1937-1945 (beginning in Asia). The Allied powers fought against the Axis powers.
Allies: Britian, Russia (Soviet Union), France, United States
nations which fought and won against the Axis powers in World War II
region in the mainland of Asia which Japan had acquired in the Russo-Japanese War of 1904-5. Japan's sphere of influence there was being threatened by Chinese nationalism, so the Japanese military took over and established a puppet state called Manchukuo. This angered Western nations and made Japan withdraw from the League of Nations, which then allowed them to align more closely with Germany and Italy.
Pearl Harbor December 7, 1941
attack in the United States which prompted the US to join WWII. It was undertaken only after serious consideration by Japanese authorities and chose to start a war rather than have to avoid angering the unfriendly US.
German term meaning "lightning war," used to describe Germany's military tactics in WWII, which involved the rapid movement of infantry, tanks, and airpower over large areas
Rape of Nanjing 1937-8
the Japanese army's systematic killing, mutilation, and rape of the Chinese civilian population of Nanjing in 1938
the Nazi genocide of Jews and other "undesirables" in German society;
United Nations 1945
international peacekeeping organization and forum for international opinion, established in 1945
Germany, Italy, and Japan fought and lost against the Allied Powers in WWII
became a symbol of the dead soldiers in WWI because they symbolized sleep, grew in disturbed ground like no-man's land, and were blood red
Canadian Lieutenant Colonel who wrote "In Flanders Fields" and was killed in WWI
In Flanders Fields
poem by John McRae - if we do not keep fighting the dead will not sleep, linked dead soldiers to poppies
like stock for the government to raise money for the war that they will pay back in a few years
a concerted set of messages aimed at influencing the opinions or behavior of large numbers of people
government advertising to convince you of something
only the strong survive - war is good, weeds out the weak for evolution
huge U.S. government initiative to aid in post-WWII restoration of Europe, giving $12 billion, put into effect in 1947, intended to prevent another depression or communism and to create a market for U.S. goods.
European Economic Community (Common Market)
an alliance formed by Italy, France, West Germany, Belgium, the Netherlands, and Luxembourg in 1957 and dedicated to developing common trade policies and reduced tariffs; it gradually developed into the European Union
the final step in a series of operations to increase cooperation between the European states in the wake of WWII; formally established in 1994, twelve of its members adopted a common currency in 2002
North Atlantic Treaty Organization (NATO)
a military and political alliance founded in 1949 that committed the United States to the defense of Europe in the event of communist Soviet aggression
First state Germany invaded in September 1939 that began WWII in Europe
technology used in trench warfare (WWI) first by Germans, then British and French that caused burning in the eyes and throat and a slow death
kind of state made up of many nations with one ruling ethnicity. these were largely ended in Europe and the Middle East by WWI and several nations became nation-states
economic policy of US government at the beginning of the Depression - cut spending, no safety net, thought economy would have a natural recovery (boom and bust of capitalism). when the Depression continued for years, Franklin Roosevelt changed this, but didn't go as far as democratic socialism, with the New Deal