Citation of an expert whose expertise is doubtful or nonexistent.
Argument Ad Hominem
The appeal that addresses real or imagined negative qualities of people holding opposite view.
Reductive Fallacy (Strawman)
Oversimplification between causes and often links two events as if they caused the other directly
Begging the Question (Circular Reasoning)
Treatment of an opinion as if it were already proved or disproved.
No logical relation exists between two or more connected ideas.
Claim based on too little evidence or on unrepresentative evidence.
A position that is not supportable at all. Often uses an absolute statement involving words such as all, always, never, and no one that allow no exceptions. Stereotype another common form.
Post Hoc Fallacy
An assumption that one event happened before another that it must have caused the later event.
Either/Or Fallacy (False Dilemma)
The assumption that a complicated question only has two answers.
The use of an analogy as a complete likeness.
Fallacy based on fear of putting foot in wrong direction and causing a chain succession of failures.
Irrelevant issue intended to distract readers from relevant issues.
Readers should accept the assertion in order to be identified with others they admire.
Appealing to the Reader's Fear or Pity
Substitution for facts, examples, and other evidence instead of being used to convey an effective argument.
Acceptance of an idea because everyone else does.
Inviting the reader to join their conspiracy.
Argument Ad Populum
Readers should accept a conclusion based on shared values or even prejudices and nothing else.
Appeal to Ignorance
Accept something as a true claim because it hasn't been proven false or truthful.