came to throne in reaction to Empress Wu he appointed government commissions heads by distinguished aristocrats to reform government finances. During Xuan Zoing's reign examination bureaucrats lost ground. The grand Canal was repaired and extended,a new census extended the tax rolls, and wealth and prosperity returned to the court. His reign (713-756) was also culturally brilliant.
when An lushan was rebelling the emperor fled to Sichuan apparently all for love, which was soon lost: Ten years earlier the emperor Xuan Zong had taken a young woman Yang Guifei from the harem of his son. On route to Sichuan Xuan Zong's soldiers blamed Yang Guifei for their plight and they strangled her.
in 755 An Lushan a Sogdian general who commanded three Chinese provinces on the northeastern frontier, led his 160,000 troops in a rebellion that swept across northern china, capturing Luoyang and then Chang'an.
He was born in Nanyang, Henan, to a literary family. His father died when he was two, and he was raised in the family of his older brother, Han Hui. He taught himself to read and write and was a student of philosophical writings and confucian thought. His family moved to Changan in 774 but was banished to Southern China in 777 because of its association with disgraced minister Yuan Zai. . In 792, after four attempts, Han Yu passed the imperial exam (jin shi). A few years later he went into the service of the military governor of Bianzhou, and then of the military governor of Xuzhou." He gained his first central government position in 802, but was soon exiled; seemingly for failing to support the heir apparent's faction
It is a perfect example of the dynastic cycle. It reunified China in 960. It started out as the Northern Song and its capital was Kaifeng. In 1127 Northern Song weakened and they moved south and started the Southern Song and its capital was Hangzhou. Under it China experienced an agricultural revolution advances in technology, and the growth of money and economy encouraged the expansion of trade.
Chau Kuang Yin
Chinese emperor, founder of the Sung dynasty. A leading general during the short-lived Later Chou dynasty (951-60), he usurped the throne, and by the time of his death he had reunited most of China proper. Chao's reign followed the five dynasties period an era of frequent political change. His greatest accomplishment, and the reason for the longevity of the Sung, was his replacement of the system of autonomous local military commanders with large professional armies under the control of the central government
located on the Yellow River. It was the capital of the Song Dynasty
it was made capital of the Southern Sung when the Northern Sung weakened and they moved to the south to rule.
(1021-1086): was born to a modest family with a history of government service. Although Wang Anshi started out as a provincial official, under the Emperor Shenzong (reigned 1067-1085) he became the most important politician of his time, a reformer who sought to regulate many aspects of Northern Song culture, from education to the military
Ever Normal Granaries
Price-stabilizing granaries first established in the 1st century B.C. Under the Quin dynasty they were set up by all Chinese provinces in each county to keep grain on hand to offset regional food shortages in years of crop failure. By keeping the supply of grain stable ("ever normal"), the granaries stabilized prices, and even undeveloped regions of the country were protected from famine.
Public Service Act
this ended the equal field system which freed farmers to buy and sell land, and ownership of land as private property this gave cultivators greater independence. This also gave farmers more control over their time.
Ssu Ma Kuang
He wrote A Comprehensive Mirror For Aid in Government. His work included a discussion of documentary sources and an explanation of why he chose to rely on one source rather than another.
"A Buddhist wolf in the clothing of a Confucian sheep". It was a synthesis for Buddhism and Confucianism. It was created by Zhu Xi (Chu Hsi)
He studied Daoism, Buddhism and Confucianism in his youth. He passed the metropolitan exam at the age of 18. He started Neo-Confucianism.
His dates are uncertain, but he was probably born a few years before Mencius died (the end of the 4th century BCE), and he lived roughly until the time that the Qin dynasty reunited China in 221 BCE. So he was able to look back at the entire extent of the Warring States period and survey all the philosophers who came before him.
it started in 1127 when the Northern Song collapsed. Its capital was Hangzhou. It lasted 150 years and fell because of the Mongol onslaught in 1279.
The most famous poet of Northern Song. He was a painter, calligrapher; he practiced Zen and wrote commentaries on the Confucian classics. He believed in a limited role of the government and social control through morality. He was arrested and spent 100 days in prison waiting to be executed, but instead he was exiled. In 1094 he was exiled again to the island of Hainan.
the shortest of China's major dynasties. After the rule of Kublai and his successor the dynasty started to decline.
In 1264 it became the capital of the Mongol Empire under Kublai Khan (Yuan)
the Venetian trader who claimed to have served Kublai as an official between 1275 and 1292. He wrote A Description of the World.
they were the four sections that were divided up between Temujin's sons
Wu, Dong Jin, Lui-Song, Nan Qui, Nan Liang, Nan Chen. In this time focus was moved south of the Yangtze River, while northern China was being faced with invaders from central China. Confucianism yielded Taoism and Buddhism. Arts flourished. Sui conqured and reunified China.
Romance of the 3 Kingdoms
written by Luo Guanghong. A Chinese historical novel based on the events in the turbulent years near the end of the Han Dynasty.
(581-618) compared to the Qin Dynasty/ had 3 emperors/ founded by emperor Wen of Sui/ Yang of Sui/ capital was Chang an/ Equal Field System/ Buddhism spread/ Grand Canal/ Great Wall of China rebuilt
born in 541 and died in 604). Reunified China after 300 years of unrest. Conquered southern China and broke the power of the turks in the northern part of the country. Capital was Chang an. Founder of the Sui Dynasty. Government wasn't family but they needed to be able.
born in 569 and died in 618. Second emperor of the Sui Dynasty. Built the Great Canal. Rebuilt the Great Wall. Extended the Chinese borders south into Vietnam and north into Inner Asia
also known as Beijing Hangzhou Grand Canal . The longest canal in the world. Idea began by Fachai of Wui but expanded greatly by Yangdi
Chang an- Caital of the Sui, Han and Tang dynasty. Means "Perpetual Peace".
Founder of the Tang dynasty. Born in 556 and died in 635. Equal distribution of land amongst its people. Lowered taxes. Reformed the harsh legal system
Second emperor of the Tang Dynasty. Born in 599 and died in 649. Considered one of the greatest emperors in Chinese history. Took the title Heavenly Khan after having defeated Jaili Khan and destroying the eastern Tujue(proto turks) power. Shimin is a short phrase for "save the earth and pacify the people". Rebelled against the Sui dynasty.
traveled to China during the Tang dynasty along the Silk Rd into Chang an. Used elements of Daoism in this new form of Buddhism.
Reigned during the Tang dynasty. Only woman in the history of China to get the title or Empress Regent. Founded the Zhou dynasty. Ruled under the name Sacred and Divine Regnant. Taizong's concubine. Emperor Gaozong's concubine.