What does it mean to percieve through Prism of the Present?
1. Distracted by cultural baggage
2. Creating past when we study it
What were the Greeks called by Romans and by Greeks?
Romans called them "little greeks" or "greeks".
Greeks called themselves Hellenes from Hellas.
What does Hellenilcon mean?
The greek way.
What was one of the major reasons why Rome easily overcame such a progressive culture?
The Greeks were poor politically and often fought among themselves.
Who was Herodotus?
1. Father of History.
2. Wrote "The Histories" because he wondered how such a small country as Greece defeated the massive army of Persians.
What does "historia" mean?
Where did the Greeks adapt their alphabet from?
The Phoenician Alphabet mid 8th century BC.
What type of language is Greek?
What were the two most famous works written by Homer?
What were the two most famous works written by Hesiod?
Works and Days
What is Homer's poetry mostly about?
The Trojan War and the legendary mythology prior to it.
How was Homer's work spread before it was written down and when was it first recorded?
First written in 1200c. in 1 book
What does "Epigraphy" mean?
Writing on stone
What is "Numismatics"?
The study of coins
When was the Bronze Age?
What was indicative of the Bronze Age?
1. Bronze was mostly used
2. Indo-Europeans came into Greece 21-1900BC
3. Common Language - reconstruction of language
4. Common mythology
5. Common numbers
Where did the original Indo-Europeans settle originally in Greece?
What were the original Indo-Europeans like?
1. Agean Language
3. Primitive People
4. Agriculture/crude crafts
5. Egyptians are much more advanced.
Describe the typical Bronze Age family unit?
1. Nuclear family unit
What was it like for Women in the Bronze Age?
Women mostly had no rights
When was the Middle Helladic Period and what was indicative of it?
1. Contact made with various cultures
When was the period of Minoan's Crete?
1. Palace excavated by Sir Arthur Evans
2. Called Minoans because of King Minos
3. Minotaur Myth
4. Probably built around 2000 BC
5. 6 acres
6. extensive economy
7. indoor plumbing
8. Throne room indicating monarchy?
Describe the Minotaur Myth.
1. Reflects greek awareness of greek inferiority
2. Minoans superior to Greeks
1. Pictographic written Language
2. Used mostly for record keeping
2. Art of animals - moving-like
3. Frescoes in palace -> involving sports and women
Possible Minoan Monarchy?
1. Mainly an assumption
2. Fairly secure in Knossos - no walls
3. Centralized economy of some sort
1. Trade based
2. Barley, Olives, and grapes
3. Egyptian trade N. East
1. Fertility based
3. Anthropomorphic - gods are human like
4. Animism - found in nature
5. No temples
6. Shrines in caves to various deities
7. Bull, Snake, Fertility cults
8. Females played an active role
Fall of Minoan Empire
1. Artisans, peasants, and slaves
2. Minoan Thalassocracy
3. Mycenians invaded Crete and dominated after the volcanic eruption Thera in 1630BC
4. Knossos sacked and burned 1375
1. Empire of the seed
2. Almost uncredited Not True?
3. Not enough for export -> lucky to feed themselves
4. No ships in Art -> Weak argument -> Remnants are too small
Very small population leads to...
OBSESSION WITH PROCREATION!
1. Mycenae (Agamemmnon)
2. Tiryns (Harakles)
Difference between Myceneans and Minoans
Myceneans more barbaric and destructive
2. Discovered by michael Ventris
3. Mostly palace records
4. found in Pylos and Crete (Knossos), Tirans and Thebes
5. About 5,000
1. Minoans -> multi-level, prosperous and open
2. Myceneans -> Heavy, fortress-like
* A lot of weaponry
1. Obsessed with Homer's Troy
2. Successful linguist
3. explored Turkey
4. Found city -> Homer's Troy
5. Found "mask of Agammemnon"
Mycenean Feudal Monarchy
1. Fortress-like architecture
2. Tombs reserved for Aristocracy
3. Bodies are buried
4. Many weapons -> agressive society
5. Hereditary Monarchy but also elective -> son of a king is expected to rule but he must prove himself.
6. King is not absolute -> Council of advisors
7. Agricultural -> exported wine to hittites
8. Fighting amongst themselves
9. Engaged in piracy
Wannax / Queen
War leader = King
Queen of no importance
Man in charge of local village
Record keepers / ministering economics
1. Territories declining due to sea-peoples
2. Egyption -> Ekwesh
3. Myceneans also declining
1. No temples -> Some shrines
5. About 30 deities -> some become standard Greek gods
12 Major Greek Gods
Mycenean Artisan Class
2. stone masonry
3. Gold/Bronze work
4. Tanners -> hydes
6. Farmers -> peasants
7. Slaves -> Mostly women, men killed
Mycenean Militaristic Society
Greatest virtue: Arete -> masculine excellence
Mostly in war
Reflected in Homeric Poems
3 explanations for Mycenean Decline and Fall
mid 13th c. (roughly 1250bc)
2. Return of Heraclidae
3. Systems of collapse
- climate change
- state failure (general political incompetence)
1. Submycenean 1125-1050
2. Iron Age Begins 1050
3. By 1100 all mycenean palace's in ruins
4. Linear B is lost
5. The art of trade goes away
6. Sporadic invasions 900-750 leads into 8th century renaissance
8th Century Renaissance
1. Rise of the Polis
Naucratis - trading post in Egypt
Syracuse - largest city in sicily
Naples - Sicily
Marseilles - France
1. Greatist Traders in Meditteranean
2. Gained alphabet
3. Homer and Hesiod
4. Began writing poems The Illiad and the Odyssy -> 1/3 repition
Greek Dark Ages - Material Decline
1. Sporadic invasions
2. Migrations from Crete to Syracuse, Naples, Marseilles
Pottery Styles of the Greek Dark Ages
1. Loss of art/revertion
Iron Age: 1050
1. Turning point in pop. decline 60
2. Lowest pop. in 1000 years
3. Iron working leads to protogeometric pottery
4. Pop. Begins to grow again around 900BC
5. Eastern Commerce leads to Eastern Influence
Iron Age Recovery through pottery: 900-750
1. Early Geometric Pottery 900-850
2. Middle Geo. Pottery 850-750
3. Late Geo. Pottery 750-700
** Showed pictorial elements human and animals
** Depiction of stories from Homer
Iron Age Recovery Increased Trade
Greek Myth overview of Universe
1. Universe dominated by Anthropomorphic, formidable gods
Greek myth in Judgement of Paris
Eris not invited to Pelios and Thetis (sea nymph) wedding
Hera, Athena, Aphrodite
Golden apple to most beautiful
Aphrodite offers Paris most beautiful woman in world if he should choose her - HELEN
Helen already married to king Menelaus and Paris's claim begins the Trojan War
The Illiad is about what?
The wrath of Achilles
- Takes place 40 days in the 9th year of the 10 year war
- Achilles is a mortal
**Know very little of fall of Troy from Illiad, more from Virgil and other sources
1. Oral Tradition
2. Troy probably existed and was sacked 1100-1150 (Troy 7A) during the age of raiding 1200BC
3. Reflects four ages
* Iron, Dark, Archaic, Collapse of Mycenean era
Who was Milman Perry?
Yugoslavia research on oral traditions
What is a Rhapsode?
Bard - Epic Poet
Was there really a Homer?
1. Last poet in a long line that put them all together
3. Group of Rhapsodes Homeridides - dactyllic hexameter
4. Possibly from Chios
5. Compiled in late 6th c. BC
6. Peisistratis - Athenian Tyrant responsible
7. Division occurred in the Alexandrian Library 3rd c. bc -> put together and divided into 24ch.
Homer's Influence Terminology
1. Famous for extended simile's/metaphors
2. World View
- model of excellence/virtues
**Arete - excellence in battle and speaking
** Hubris - excessive Pride
** Ate - Madness
** Nemesis - Fate comes after you if victim of hubris/ate
Homers fate vs. Free-will
Characters are representative of overdetermination
*Gods always involved in major decisions
*Very mixed Ideology
*Dark world view
Homer's influence on greek culture
1.Enduring ideals - influenced even Socrates
2. Foundation of Western Literature
**Enduring theme of love triangle
Aristocratic Cheifdoms Homer's
1. Parades characters of local leaders
2. Hereditary inheritance but competence is required
- council decides if leader is acceptable
- skill in battle
- political speech
- if incompetent, killed
3. Similar to Viking society
Very small areas
Wannox and the Basileus
Basileus overtime becomes mainly religious
Followers and warriors from local village
Who is Agammemnon?
1. Homeric first among equals
Relationships in Dark Age Society
1. Generosity and reciprocity
2. Have to be worthy of position
*Meets in megaron
* decides things present decisions in Agora
Where people assemble
-> Men of fighting age/men who have survived
Laws of the Dark Ages
Custom = law in society
Nomos = normal = customary
Themis = rules set by gods
Dike = justice = role of the big cheif to enforce
Public society = all things must be shown
Guest friendship = Xenia
* If generations father befriended your father, later generations must respect that friendship.
* Initially for protection
* Eventually evolves into diplomacy
men go into battle everyday
struggle or an effort
agon = agony
1. Suck at ruling
2. only time when not fighting amongst self is when must band together against an external force
3. May be due to geography -> Herodotus: Persian War
**Demarates: Defects to Persians after dishonored
**Alchibades: Aristocratic Athenian systematically worked to undermine gov't when spartan war due to dishonor
Homer, Hesiod, Misogyny
1. Women had more autonomy during Dark Ages
2. Freely Moved
3. No political voice
4. Things to be traded/prizes
5. Hesiod and women
- esteemed women, good wife and mother, manages house under strict control of men
- spartan women are exceptions
1. Leisure is necessary to think well or produce art
2. Leisure is gotten through the use of impovershed (THETES)/enslaved
3. Came from war/raiding
4. Preferred to buy and sell non-greeks
2. Public sacrifice - public ritual
3. Uranos - sky god 1st gen.
Cronos - eat children 2nd gen.
Zeus - killed cronos 3rd. gen. / established pantheon / hesiod
4. God kills humans for sport
5. Humans are interesting play things
6. Emphasis on physical beauty/symmetry conceal darkness and emptyness at heart of greek religion
Dark Ages Economy 800BC
Argos, Athens, Corinth, Knossos, Sparta
- village center
- very little movement
Step above village
Consists of villages
Largest community in existance
Smallest unit of greek society
= inheritance to all sons
daughters recieve dowry -> children from marraige property of husband.
ALL WORKED including upperclass
Aim = many members especially males
Men - hard physical labor
Women - worked alongside slaves
Large vs. Small Oikos
Has to do with livestock
- can be required by raiding
Archaic Ages 750-490
pop. growth -> 2 cen.
shifts from animal to agricultural economy
- results in land hunger -> emigration and colonizations
- competing with phoenicians in trade
- need to import metals and dye
1st greek colony in Italy
Archaic Age Pottery
Reaction to need to import
exported hydes, pottery, olive oil, wine
Olive oil used for everything
Near eastern influence
Archaic 1st temples
Temple to Hera
** Emergence to monumental greek temple
** Panhellinic festivals throughout greek world
**same gods, rituals, language
1. Zeus and Hera @ Olympia
2. Apollo and Artemis @ Delos
3. Zeus @ Dodona
4. Apollo @ Delphi -> God of prophecy