# Waves

### 39 terms by kwalz

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### mechanical waves

need a medium on which to travel

### transverse waves

particles of the medium vibrate perpendicular to the motion of the wave

### longitudinal waves

particles of the medium move parallel to the direction of the wave

### water wave

combination of transverse and longitudinal

### electromagnetic wave

doesn't need a medium, travel at the speed of light in a vacuum

### matter wave

solid which has wave properties

### wave pulse

a single bump or disturbance

### periodic wave/traveling wave

wave which continues to move

### amplitude

distance from the equilibrium position

top of the wave

### trough

bottom of the wave

### wavelength

distance during which motion repeats itself

### period

time it takes for one complete vibration

### frequency

number of cycles per second

### incident wave

incoming wave that strikes the boundary

returning wave

upside down

### reflected wave is upright

if a wave travels from a more dense to a less dense medium..

### reflected wave is inverted

if a wave travels from a less dense to a more dense medium..

### law of reflection

angle of incidence is equal to the angle of reflection

### refraction

changing direction of the wave at the boundary between two different mediums

### diffraction

bending of waves around a barrier

### total internal reflection

only occurs when wave going from a more dense to a less dense medium

### critical angle

refracted ray lies right along boundary between mediums. Angle of refraction = 90 degrees

### total internal reflection

any incidence angle above the critical angle

### echos

reflected sound waves

pitch

### beats

difference in pitch

### Principle of Super Position

algebraic sum of the displacements caused by individual waves

### interference

result of superposition

### constructive interference

resulting wave has a larger amplitude

### destructive interference

resulting wave has a smaller amplitude

### standing waves

a pattern which results from the interference of two or more waves traveling the same medium. always characterized by an alternating pattern of nodes and antinodes

### nodes

result of the meeting of a crest with a trough. leads to points of zero amplitude

### anti-nodes

positions along the medium where there are points of maximum amplitude due to a crest meeting a crest or a trough meeting a trough

### normal

imaginary line perpendicular to the boundary

### Snell's Law

mathematical equation which relates the indices of refraction and angles for a light ray traveling from one medium to another

### incident ray

incoming light ray

### refracted ray is bent away from the normal

if light travels form a more optically dense to a less optically dense medium

Example: