Chapter 22 Heredity (lesson 1

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Heredity

The passing of traits from parents to offspring. All organisms pass information about traits to their children.

Gene

A section of DNA that carries a trait. Each DNA molecule has thousands of genes.

Chromosome

A rod-shaped structure that contains DNA and is found in the nucleus of a cell

Genetics

The study of heredity

Environment

An organism's surroundings

Mutation

A change in a gene. They can cause problems in humans and other organisms.

Base

A molecule found in DNA that is used to code information

DNA

Material in each chromosome that contains an organism's genes. Each DNA molecule in a cell makes one chromosome. LArge molecule shaped likea twisted ladder. The rungsof the ladder are made of four bases.

Replicate

To make a copy of.

Mitosis

The process that results in two cells identical to the parent cells. The division of the nucleus into two new nuclei. Following mitosis the whole cell divides.

Diversity

The range of differences fround among the members of a population.

Adaptation

A change or adjustment that makes an organism better able to survive in its environment.

Gamete

Sex cell. Males produce sperm cells, females egg cells. Each gamete has only one-half of the chromosomes found in the organism's body cells. When the gametes join they form a cell that has a complete set of chromosomes.

Meiosis

The process that results in sex cells. The chrmosomes are copied in the parent cell. The cell divides into two new cells. Each new cells divides again. One parent cell results in four new sex cells. Each sex cell contains one-half the number of chromosomes of the parent cell.

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