a giant molecule formed by the joining of smaller molecules, usually by a dehydration reaction. Polysaccharides, proteins, and nucleic acids are examples of these.
a long molecule consisting of many similar or identical monomers linked together by covalent bonds
the subunit that serves as the building block of a polymer
a macromolecule serving as a catalyst, a chemical agent that increases the rate of a reaction without being consumed by the reaction. Most are proteins.
a chemical reaction in which 2 molecules become covalently bonded to each other with the removal of a water molecule
a chemical reaction that breaks bonds between 2 molecules by the addition of water; functions in disassembly of polymers to monomers
a sugar (monosaccharide) or one of its dimers (disaccharide) or polymers (polysaccharide)
the simplest carbohydrate, active alone or serving as a monomer for disaccharides and polysaccharides. Also known as simple sugars, that are generally some multiple of CH2O
a double sugar, consisting of two monosaccharides joined by a glycosidic linkage formed by a dehydration reaction
a covalent bond formed between two monosaccharides by a dehydration reaction
a polysaccharide of many monosaccharides, formed by dehydration reactions
a storage polysaccharide in plants, consisting entirely of glucose monomers joined by alpha glycosidic linkages
an extensively branched glucose storage polysaccharide found in the liver and muscle of animals; the animal equivalent of starch
a structural polysaccharide of plant cell walls, consisting of glucose monomers joined by beta glycosidic linkages
a structural polysaccharide, consisting of amino sugar monomers, found in many fungal cell walls and in the exoskeletons of all arthopods
any of a group of large biological molecules, including fats, phospholipids, and steroids, that mix poorly, if at all, with water
a lipid consisting of 3 fatty acids linked to one glycerol molecule; also called a triacylglycerol or a triglyceride.
a carboxylic acid with a long carbon chain; vary in length and in the number and location of double bonds; 3 fatty acids linked to a glycerol molecule form a fat molecule, also known as a triacyglycerol or a triglyceride
a lipid consisting of 3 fatty acids linked to one glycerol molecule; also called a fat or triglyceride
saturated fatty acid
a fatty acid in which all carbons in the hydrocarbon tail are connected by single bonds, thus maximizing the number of hydrogen atoms that are attached to the carbon skeleton
unsaturated fatty acid
a fatty acid that has one or more double bonds between carbons in the hydrocarbon tail. Such bonding reduces the number of hydrogen atoms attached to the carbon skeleton
an unsaturated fat, formed artificially during hydrogenation of oils, containing one or more trans double bonds
a lipid made up of glycerol joined to 2 fatty acids and a phosphate group. The hydrocarbon chains of the fatty acids act as nonpolar, hydrophobic tails, while the rest of the molecule acts as a polar, hydrophilic head.; form bilayers that function as biological membranes
a type of lipid characterized by a carbon skeleton consisting of 4 fused rings with various chemical groups attached
a steroid that forms an essential component of animal cell membranes and acts as a precursor molecule for the synthesis of other biologically important steroids, such as many hormones
a chemical agent that selectively increases the rate of a reaction without being consumed by the reaction.
a polymer of many amino acids linked together by peptide bonds
a biologically functional molecule consisting of one or more polypeptides folded and coiled into a specific 3D structure
an organic molecule possessing both a carboxyl and an amino group; serve as monomers of polypeptides
the covalent bond between the carboxyl group on one amino acid and the amino group on another, formed by dehydration reaction
the level of protein structure referring to the specific linear sequence of amino acids
regions of repetitive coiling or folding of the polypeptide backbone of a protein due to hydrogen bonding between constituents of the backbone (not the side chains).
a coiled region constituting one form of the secondary structure of proteins, arising from a specific pattern of hydrogen bonding between the atoms of the polypeptide backbone (not the side chains)
beta pleated sheet
one of the secondary structure of proteins in which the polypeptide chain fold back and forth. 2 regions of the chain lie parallel to each other and are held together by hydrogen bonds between atoms of the polypeptide backbone (not the side chains).
the overall shape of a protein molecule due to interactions of amino acid side chains, including hydrophobic interactions, ionic bonds, hydrogen bonds, and disulfide bridges
a type of weak chemical interaction caused when molecules that do not mix with water coalesce to exclude water
a strong covalent bond formed when the sulfur of one cysteine monomer bonds to the sulfur of another cysteine monomer
the particular shape of a complex, aggregate protein, defined by the characteristic 3D arrangement of its constituent subunits, each a polypeptide
a recessively inherited human blood disorder in which a single nucleotide change in the beta globin gene causes hemoglobin to aggregate, changing red blood cell shape and causing multiple symptoms in afflicted individuals
in proteins, a process in which a protein loses its native shape due to the disruption of weak chemical bonds and interactions, thereby becoming Biologically inactive; in DNA, the separation of the two strands of the double helix. Occurs under extreme (noncellular) conditions of pH, salt concentration or temperature
a protein complex that assists in the proper folding of other proteins
a technique used to study the 3D structure of molecules. Depends on diffraction of an X-ray beam by the individual atoms of a crystallized molecule
a discrete unit of hereditary information consisting of a specific nucleotide sequence in DNA (or RNA, in some viruses)
a polymer (polynucleotide) consisting of many nucleotide monomers; serves as a blueprint for proteins and, through the actions of proteins, for all cellular activities. the 2 types of DNA and RNA
deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA)
a double-stranded, helical nucleic acid molecule, consisting of nucleotide monomers with a deoxyribose sugar and the nitrogenous bases adenine (A), cytosine (C), guanine (G) and thymine (T); capable of being replicated and determining the inherited structure of a cell's proteins
ribonucleic acid (RNA)
a type of nucleic acid consisting of a polynucleotide made up of nucleotide monomers with a ribose sugar and the nitrogenous bases adenine (A), cytosine (C), guanine (G), and uracil (U); usually single-stranded; functions in protein synthesis, gene regulation, and as the genome of some viruses
a polymer consisting of many nucleotide monomers in a chain. The nucelotides can be those of DNA or RNA.
the building block of a nucleic acid, consisting of a 5 carbon sugar covalently bonded to a nitrogenous base and one or more phosphate groups
1 of 2 types of nitrogenous bases found in nucleotides, characterized by a 6-membered ring. Cytosine (C), thymine (T) and uracil (U) are examples of these.
1 of 2 types of nitrogenous bases found in nucleotides, characterized by a 6-membered ring fused with a 5-membered ring. Adenine (A) and guanine (G) are examples of these.
the sugar component of DNA nucleotides, having 1 of fewer hydroxyl group than ribose, the sugar component of the RNA nucleotide
the sugar component of RNA nucleotides
the form of native DNA, referring to its 2 adjacent antiparallel polynucleotide strands wound around an imaginary axis into a spiral shape
referring to the arrangement of the sugar-phophate backbones in a DNA double helix (they run in opposite 5' -> 3' directions)