(1860 - 1935) Jane Addams was a leading Progressive and one of the major activists in the Settlement House movement. Along with Ellen Starr, Addams founded Chicago's Hull House in 1889. As part of her fight for the poor, she also campaigned for worker's compensation, housing laws, and ending child labor. In 1931, Addams was awarded the Nobel Peace Prize for her life's work.
American Protective Association
Founded in 1887, the American Protective Association embodied the nativist sentiments that were popular in the last decades of the 19th century. Its members were convinced that Catholicism and other cultural traditions brought to the United States by new immigrants threatened the very fabric of American society. The APA campaigned for stronger immigration laws and mandatory use of English in the classroom.
Susan B. Anthony
(1820 - 1906) An abolitionist and supporter of temperance, Susan B. Anthony joined the growing women's suffrage movement in the 1850s. In 1869, she founded the National Women's Suffrage Association with Elizabeth Cady Stanton. Though she died 14 years before women won the right to vote, her tireless work as a lobbyist, speaker, and organizer laid the groundwork for the historic passage of the Nineteenth Amendment, which gave women the right to vote.
Carrie Chapman Catt
(1859 -1947) Carrie Chapman Catt served as the president of the National American Woman Suffrage Association after Susan B. Anthony and was extremely influential in the passage of the Nineteenth Amendment, which granted women the right to vote. She also founded the International Woman Suffrage Alliance, which survives to this day as the International Alliance of Women.
Chinese Exclusion Act of 1882
The Chinese Exclusion Act of 1882, which received strong support in Congress, was designed to end the steady flow of Chinese immigration to the West Coast by barring Chinese immigrants for a period of ten years. The ban continued, however, when the act was renewed and then extended in 1902. It was not removed from law until 1943.
(1859 -1952) John Dewey was an influential philosopher, psychologist, and Progressive. He is widely regarded as one of the founders of Pragmatism, a philosophical movement heavily informed by Darwin's theory of evolution. Dewey put these beliefs into effect through his reform work, which focused on education as a tool for democracy and equality.
Ellis Island was an immigration reception center located a mile south of Manhattan in the New York Harbor. Between 1892 and 1954, when it closed, the center processed over 12 million immigrants. Travelers were examined by doctors for contagious diseases and grilled by inspectors about their work prospects and political beliefs. Though the lines were long, most immigrants were allowed entrance.
The Morrill Act, passed in 1862, greatly increased the number of vocational (job training) schools in the United States. Under the Morrill Act, each state received 30,000 acres per senator and representative, land which was earmarked to be used to teach farming and other industrial skills. The institutions created under the Morrill Act were known as "land-grant colleges."
Nativism arose as an oppositional response to the increase in immigration to the United States in the late 19th century. Nativists were usually born in the United States, though their parents may have not have been. They considered immigrants, their customs, and their language a threat to the "American" way of life. Since many of these new immigrants were Catholic or Jewish, nativists often expressed their intolerance through religious prejudice.
New immigration refers to the immigration boom that occurred in the United States during the late 19th and early 20th century. New immigrants were attracted by America's economy, which grew steadily after the Industrial Revolution, and were at times forced out of their own countries by famine or other disasters. It also marked a change in where immigrants came from, from southern and eastern Europe rather than northern and western Europe.
Frederick Law Olmstead
(1822 - 1903) Frederick Law Olmstead, who planned and oversaw the creation of New York's Central Park in 1858, was an important figure in modern American landscape design. Olmstead saw the public park as a tool for social reform and physical health — a place where all citizens could enjoy a peaceful green space. Olmstead also designed public parks for Boston, Philadelphia, Chicago, and San Francisco, as well as many spaces now preserved as National Parks.
Political machines are systems of political control whereby a group of party leaders or a main "boss" rewards supporters with jobs, contracts, money, or other favors. Political machines, especially those functioning during the Gilded Age, often avoided issues such as social and economic problems, focusing instead on their ability to win votes and remain in power. They existed in big cities and states.
Professionalization refers to an increase in rules, structure, and standardization in fields such as medicine, law, and science. After the Civil War, the United States saw a great rise in the number of accrediting institutions, certifying exams, and official organizations, such as the American Chemical Society and the American Medical Association — all of which attempted to define the limits and requirements of a particular profession.
Realism was a literary movement that sought to describe people and events "as they were," instead of overly romanticizing or politicizing a story. Realists tended to use simple, unadorned language and give as much weight to daily life as they did to exciting plot points.
Settlement House Movement
The Settlement House movement was a late 19th and early 20th century reform movement that brought health, education, and job training services to urban slums. Based on the model of London's Toynbee Hall, where an English vicar encouraged other progressives to "settle" with him in the tenements, settlement houses attracted many middle-class female reformers, whose education and skills often went underused in their own homes. Volunteers would teach classes, provide childcare, and attempt to assimilate new immigrants into American culture. Jane Addams was the original community organizer in Chicago.
1) Social Darwinism is often used as an argument against the welfare state, and became popular as a response to the urban problems of the 19th century. Herbert Spencer, one of the first Social Darwinists, applied Darwin's theory of evolution to social realities, arguing that the unimpeded mechanisms of the social world result in the "survival of the fittest," and that the resulting social order mirrored the logic of nature. Under Social Darwinism, therefore, programs such as business regulation, sanitation, free clinics, and other reforms were thought to interfere with "perfecting" mankind. 2) Social Darwinism, as laid out by Herbert Spencer in System of Synthetic Philosophy (1862 - 1893), was survival of the fittest in all fields of knowledge and society. Spencer believed that society naturally evolves for the better, so individual freedom is inviolable, and governmental interference with the process of social evolution is a serious mistake. It was against any regulation of business, graduated income tax, sanitation and housing regulations, and protection against medial fraud. They felt that such intervention would help the "unfit" survive, thereby impeding progress. John D. Rockefeller was a believer of this social "survival of the fittest."
The social gospel refers to the growing conscientiousness of middle-class, typically Protestant Americans at the end of the 19th century. Walter Rauschenbusch, a Baptist theologian, is widely credited as being the leader of social gospel philosophy, which espoused "loving thy neighbor as thyself" and applying these Christian principles to established institutions such as government, schools, and businesses.
Elizabeth Cady Stanton
(1815 - 1902) Elizabeth Cady Stanton was one of the earliest leaders of the women's suffrage movement and the primary author of the Declaration of Sentiments, a then-revolutionary document calling for the equal rights of men and women, presented at the Seneca Falls Convention in 1848. She, along with Susan B. Anthony, founded the National Women's Suffrage Association, which later incorporated other groups as the American Women's Suffrage Association. Stanton served as president of the organization from 1890 until 1892.
Frederick Jackson Turner
(1861 - 1932) Frederick Jackson Turner was an influential 19th-century historian. In 1893, observing that the formerly sparse population of the West was beginning to look more like that of the densely populated East, he proposed the "frontier thesis." This argument, outlined in his seminal essay "The Significance of the Frontier in American History," posited that the existence of a tangible frontier had shaped America's growth since the Revolution and could be used to explain the country's inventive and adventurous character. With the end of the frontier, Turner believed, came the end of an American era.
(1835 - 1910) Samuel Clemens, better known by the pen name Mark Twain, was an American author who wrote satirical essays and books. He was the first American born west of the Appalachians to achieve significant literary success, and many of his books, such as The Adventures of Huckleberry Finn and Tom Sawyer, drew heavily from memories of his boyhood in Hannibal, Missouri.
Urbanization refers to a growth in cities fueled by migration from rural to urban areas, often a result of the work available there. The United States experienced a significant period of urbanization during the late 19th and early 20th century, due in part to the draw of its strong post-industrial economy. Small-town residents and immigrants from Europe flocked to American cities, which strengthened U.S. industry but also created a number of health and social problems.
Vaudeville was one of the most popular entertainment forms of the late 19th century. These performances, which grew out of the rowdier "variety shows" held at bars and saloons, featured a wide array of acts intended to appeal to a large audience. Typical vaudevilles included musicians, actors, singers, jugglers, comedians, dancers, magicians, minstrels, and mimes, and were held at large theaters in cities throughout the country. Many of the performers later became stars in the movie industry.
Women's Suffrage Movement
The women's suffrage movement took place in the United States from the latter half of the 19th century up until the passage of the Nineteenth Amendment in 1920, which put into law women's right to vote. Also thought to be the "first wave" of American feminism, the suffrage movement arguably began with the Seneca Falls Convention of 1848, which issued a Declaration of Sentiments that called for the equal rights of men and women before the law. Suffragettes, as they were often called, were variously led by such figures as Lucretia Mott, Elizabeth Cady Stanton, Susan B. Anthony, Alice Paul, and Carrie Chapman Catt.
Young Women's Christian Association
The Young Women's Christian Association, like the Young Men's Christian Association, came to the United States from England with a mission of bringing educational and religious instruction to the growing youth populations of urban areas. Both groups focused on social and economic reform as well as providing a place for recreational activities for young people, but the YWCA later incorporated goals of women's suffrage and empowerment.