a process developed in the 1850s that led to faster, cheaper steel production
a railroad system that crossed the continental United States
in French, meaning "allow to do;" a business system where companies are allowed to conduct business without interference by the government
John D. Rockefeller
(1839-1937) American industrialist and philanthropist; he made a fortune in the oil business and used vertical and horizontal integration to establish a monopoly on the steel business.
(1835-1919) American industrialist and humanitarian; he focused his attention on steelmaking and made a fortune through his vertical integration method.
small workshop set up in a tenement rather than in centralized factories
(1850-1924) American labor leader; he helped found the American Federation of Labor to campaign for workers' rights.
American Federation of Labor
(AFL) labor organization that united skilled workers into national unions for specific industries
Orville and Wilbur Wright
(1871-1948) (1867-1912) American pioneers of aviation; they went from experiments with kites and gliders to piloting the ﬁrst successful gas-powered airplane ﬂight and later founded the American Wright Company to manufacture airplanes.
risk taker who starts new ventures within the economic system of capitalism
a view of society based on Charles Darwin's scientific theory of natural selection
the business practice of owning all of the businesses involved in each step of a manufacturing process
Knights of Labor
secret society that became the first truly national labor union in the United States
name given to oil prospectors who came to Pennsylvania in the mid and late 1800s
economic system in which most businesses are privately owned
having complete control in the marketplace, without any outside competition
owning all the businesses in a certain field
Sherman Antitrust Act
(1890) a law that made it illegal to create monopolies or trusts that restrained free trade
a list or register of people who are being denied a particular freedom or privilege
public transportation systems that carry large numbers of people
Edwin L. Drake
Successfully used a steam engine to drill for oil near Titusville, PA. Started an oil boom across Kentucky, Ohio, Illinois, Indiana, and Texas
a railroad owner who built a railway connecting Chicago and New York. He popularized the use of steel rails in his railroad, which made railroads safer and more economical. Made millions
Eugene V. Debs
He was the president and the organizer of the American Railway Union. He organized the Pullman Strike and helped organize the Social Democratic party.
Alexander Graham Bell
United States inventor (born in Scotland) of the telephone (1847-1922)
Thomas Alva Edison
This scientist received more than 1,300 patents for a range of items including the automatic telegraph machine, the phonograph, improvements to the light bulb, a modernized telephone and motion picture equipment.