Neuro test 1 class 2

Created by Amerkle08 

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Gross anatomy

______: larger anatomy that can be seen

Fine anatomy

______: micro anatomy

Corpus colosum

_______: the largest connection between the left and right hemispheres

Neural groove

Embryology
The brain develops from a __________ at around 4-5 weeks.

Vessicles, cephalons

Embryology
4-5 weeks after conception, the embryo has 3 ______, which later develop into ________.

Prosencephalon

Cephalons
_____(forebrain)- develops into telen/diencephalon

Mesencephalon

(midbrain)- develops into mesencephalon

Rhomencephalon

______: develops into met encephalon/myelincephalon

Cerebrum, basal ganglion

The telencephalon becomes the _______ and the _______.

Thalamus

The diencephalon becomes the _______.

Midbrain

The mesencephalon becomes the ________.

Pons

The metencephalon makes the _________.

Medulla oblongata

The myelencephalon makes the __________.

Fontanella, 1.5

The soft spot on a baby's skull where the fissures have yet to meet is called the ________. it is open in the baby until around _______ years of age.

Fontanella

Where the fissures meet in an adult's skull is called the ________.

Brain, spinal chord

The central nervous system is composed of two major components: the _____ and the _______.

Meningese

The CNS is protected by three layers called the _______.

Duramater

Meningese
________:Tough, strong And fibrous membrane, the outermost layer, attached to the skull.

Epidural, potential

______: a space between the skull/bones and duramater; called a ______ space because there is not a gap all the time, but it could potentially open.

Arachnoid, CSF

Meningese
_____: thin and vascular membrane (has no veins or arteries)
Located between the duramater and piamater
Filled with _____

Subdural

The space between the arachnoid and duramater is called the ______

Subarachnoid

The space between the arachnoid and the piamater is called the _______.
This is connected to the ventricular system

Piamater

Meningese
_____: a very thin, transparent layer made of connective tissue that sits on the brain tissue

Falx cerebri

Duramater
_______- knife shaped portion inserted into the largest of the brain, the inter hemispheric fissure

Tintorium cerebelli

Duramater
_______: tent shaped portion of the duramater positioned at the fissure between the cerebrum and cerebellum

Falx cerebelli

Duramater
______: separates the two hemispheres of the cerebellum

CSF, subarachnoid layer

_______: a Clear, colorless fluid which is produced by the choroid plexus, which is located in the ventricles
Acts as a shock absorber and protects against trauma.
The ventricular system is connected to the _______.

Lumbar tap

______: the injection of a needle at L3; A sample of CSF is taken and sent to a lab to screen for infections.

Cerebrum, gyri

The largest and most visible portion of the brain is the ______. It's surface is represented by many bumps and convulsions referred to as _____.

Sulcus

_____: the fissure/valleys that separate gyri and lobes from each other

Cortex

The surface of the cerebrum is covered by the ________.
The message behind everything we do winds up here.

6

The cortex has ___ different layers of cells.

Longitudinal (interheispheric) fissure

The fissure that separates the left and right hemispheres is called the _____

Central sulcus

______: located at the dorsal and lateral view of the brain.
Has a depth of ~2cm
Separates the frontal from the parietal lobe

Pre central gyrus

______: gyri located beside the central sulcus in the frontal lobe, involved with motor activity

Post central gyrus

_____: gyri located beside the central sulcus in the parietal lobe, involved with sensory activity

Parcentral lobule

The combination of the precentralgyrus and post central gurus is referred to as the _______

Lateral sulcus

______: separates the frontal and temporal lobe anteriorly and posteriorly separates the parietal lobe

Transverse fissure

_______: Separates the cerebrum from the cerebellum.
The tintorium cerebelli is inserted into this fissure.

Calcarince fissure

The _________ is only seen at the medial aspect of the brain
Positioned on the occipital lobe
Divides the primary visual cortex into the upper and lower operculum

Upper, lower

The calcarine fissure separates the primary visual cortex into two portions: the _____ operculum and the ______ operculum

Parietal occipital sulcus

The _______ separates the parietal and occipital lobe

Superior temporal gyrus

_____(STG): an important gurus of the temporal lobef

Cerebral

The _______ lobes:
Frontal
Parietal
Temporal
Occipital
Insular

Frontal, parietal, occipital

The midsagital view of the brain:
The _____, ______, and ______ lobes are observable, as well as the cerebellum and arbor vitas (the white matter within the cerebellum)

Frontal

The ______ lobe:
Contains the pre central gyrus
Is neighbored posteriorly to the parietal lobe
Is associated with motor activity

Prefrontal

The ______ area of the frontal lobe:
Associated with attention
People afflicted with short attention spans generally have damage to this portion of the brain

Precentral Gyrus, homunculus

_______: the primary motor cortex area. The pre central gyrus is the location, the primary motor cortex is the function
The ________ resides in this area

Homunculus

_______: a physiological/functional representation of sensory or motor perception
Differed portions of the body are represented in a "map"

Broadman's areas, 44, 22, 17

There are sixty cytoarchitectural areas in the brain known as ______.
Broca's area: _____
Wernicke's area: ______
visual cortex: ____

Broca's area

_______: the anterior speech cortex
Generally located in the left hemisphere in the frontal lobe

Pre central sulcus

______: separates the pre central gyrus from the other parts of the frontal lobes

Olfactory, gray, tract

_______ tract/bulb:
The bulb is made of ________ matter
Located at inferior surface of the frontal lobe
______: myelinated bundle of fibers connect to CN#1
Olfactory: the only sense we have that doesn't pass through the thalamus

Anosmia

The loss of the sense of smell due to damage to the frontal lobe is called:_______

Area triangularis

_______: the anatomical representation of broca's area
Located in the inferior frontal gyrus

Prefrontal cortex

_______: located at the front of the frontal lobe; associated with attention, pragmatics, abstract thinking, and decision making

Frontal, superior, mid

The ____, _____, and ____ Sulci of the frontal lobe are important to identify the gyri

Parietal lobe

_____: neighbored anteriorly to the frontal, inferior to the temporal, and posterior to the occipital lobe.
Associated with perceptions such as heat, pain,touch,and sharpness

Post central gyrus

______: primary somatasensory (somesthetic) cortex
Contains a sensory homunculus

Preoccipital notch

_______: a notch at the inferior surface of the parietal lobe; helps to separate the parietal and occipital love

Intraparietal sulcus

______: an oblique line that separates the parietal lobe into two smaller lobules: the inferior and superior lobules

Inferior lobule

_____: contains 2 important gyri: the supramarginal gyrus and angular gyrus
If either of these are damaged, Alexia, agraphia, or incalculia can occur

Incalculia

______: the inability to do math
Caused by damage to the supramarginql or angular gyri in the parietal love

Agraphia

______: the inability to write
Caused by damage to the supra marginal or angular gyri in the parietal lobe

Alexia

_____: the inability to read
Caused by damage to the supra marginal or angular gyri in the parietal lobe

Temporal lobe

_______: bordered anteriorly to the frontal lobe, posteriorly to the occipital lobe, an superiorly to the parietal lobe
Contains 3 major gyri: superior, mid, and temporal gyri that are positioned parallel to the lateral sulcus

Arcuate fasciculus

______: Connects the wernickes to the broca's area

Wernicke's area

______: broadman's area #22
Receptive language cortex
Connect to the brocas area via the arcuate fasciculus

Transverse gyri of heschel

_________: located deep within the lateral sulcus within the temporal lobe
The primary auditory cortex
Broadmans area # 41&42

Planum temporale

________: the smooth area at the posterior of the superior temporal gyrus

Parahippocampal gyrus

________: in the medial aspect of the temporal lobe
Surrounds the hippocampus (the memory cabinet of t brain)
Deals with Memory retrieval and encoding

Uncus, limbic

______: Located at the medial aspect of the temporal lobe near the hypothalamus
Deals with rage, fear, and other equally negative emotions
Part of the ______ system

Occipital lobe

______: most posterior lobe of the cerebrum
Deals with vision
Important landmarks: calcarine fissure, primary visual cortex, association visual cortices, lingual gyrus

Calcarine fissure

________: located At the medial aspect of the occipital lobe,
divides the primary visual Cortex into 2 portions: the upper and lower operculum

Primary visual cortex

________: Broadman's area 17
Cortical blindness associated with damage to this area

Association visual cortices

______: located superior to the primary visual cortex within the occipital lobe.
Broadman's Areas #18 & 9

Lingual gyrus

_______: nothing to do with talking; it gets it's name because it is shaped like a tongue
Located below the calcimine fissure within the occipital lobe

Insula lobe

_______: there are 2, one on each side of the brain
Unobservable unless a lateral portion of the brain is cut
A group of vertically oriented gyri
Associated with the limbic system, visceral functions, temperature of skin, full bladder, degree of pain, and fight/flight.
Evolutionarily older part of the brain

Circular sulcus

Surrounds the insular lobe

Interoceptions

_______: temperature, full bladder, degree of pain, etc.

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