the study of nutrients in food and of how the body can handle them.
when was the first commercial dog food made?
what was the first commercial dog food?
a cooking process in which the raw ingredients are mixed together and rapidly cooked under high heat and pressure.
any food constituent that aids in the support of life, growth, tissue maintenance and health.
what are the 6 nutrients?
carbs, fats, proteins, water, vitamins, minerals
what are the 2 types of nutrients
essential, not made by the body, needs to be in diet. nonessential, made by the body
what are the functions of nutrients?
act as a structural component of the body. assist with chemical reactions in the body, metabolism. transport substances throughout the body. help regulate body temperature. affect palatability which increases consumption. supplies energy.
what is amylase?
a digestive enzyme found in saliva that dogs and cats are missing that aids in the break down on carbs.
where are the four locations of digestion?
mouth, esophagus, cardiac sphincter, stomach, small intestine, large intestine (colon).
acts as a lubricant for easier swallowing. makes food soluble (dissolve in water). contains bacterial agents that prevent oral infections.
at the base of the stomach, relaxes so the food can enter the stomach from the esophagus.
reservoir for food
stomach churns the food into a semi fluid mass
what alters the composition of protein and fat?
what acid is in the stomach?
an enzyme that will start to digest proteins.
where does partial protein digestion occur?
what is the small intestine responsible for?
most of the chemical digestion and absorption of nutrients.
2 accessory organs
liver and pancreas
small fingerlike projections of the intestinal lining that increase the area of absorption for nutrients.
what is another name for the large intestine?
what are the functions of the large intestine?
absorption of water and electrolytes. fecal matter reaches the rectum for excretion.
what is fecal matter?
undigested food residues, sloughed cells and bacteria.
what causes gas
a poor diet that contains undigested material such as a lot of carbs.
what does an ingredient list say?
they are always listed in decreasing order according to weight.
what appears on a food label?
guaranteed analysis, ingredient list, metabolizable energy, caloric density, recommended life stages feeding, substantiation claims, and expiration date.
what are the 3 types of "meat" found in pet food?
striated, meal and meat by-product.
describe the 3 types of meat
striated, muscle meat. meal, whole animal ground up, meat by-product, clean slaughtered part of animals not including meat.
what are the 4 d's?
dying, dead, disabled, diseased.
why is energy so important?
it is required by the body for normal growth, maintenance, reproductive performance and physical work/movement.
hw much of the diet is used for energy?
where does energy come from?
the energy providing nutrients carbs, proteins and fats.
how is energy measured in nutrition
how is energy expressed on food labels?
what are important energy distinctions?
gross energy ge, digestible energy de and metabolizable energy me.
what is me?
the amount of energy ultimately available to the tissues of the body.
how is me valued?
me = ge - fecal and urine energy
what is ed?
energy density. one of the most important concepts in pet nutrition because it is the principal factor that determines the amount of food required.
moves the food from the mouth to the stomach.
what are the 3 nutrients digested?
fats, carbs and proteins
where is the blood and lymphatic system processed?
what happens in the blood and lymphatic system?
delivers digested forms to the tissues of the body.
what happens as ed increases?
the volume of the food decreases.
the balance of the body
what is rmr?
resting metabolic rate
what are influences on rmr?
caloric intake, hormonal and reproductive status, body composition and age.
what 8 factors account for kcal's from the quantity of food that is determined to maintain weight?
reproductive status, age, condition of body, breed, activity level, temperament, environmental conditions, overall health.