Tracheids and vessel elements are cells found within:
The __________ regions of membrane phospholipids are oriented towards __________ .
__________ is the construction of mRNA from DNA, whereas __________ is the construction of polypeptides from mRNA.
Formation of a _________ is a key difference in cytokinesis in plants, versus animals.
Plasmodesmata connect cytoplasm of adjacent cells, resulting in a continuous _________ throughout the plant.
Reduction is a __________ of electrons, whereas oxidation involves the __________ of electrons.
Spontaneous reactions must be accompanied by the __________ of energy.
Amino acids with _______ side chains usually are found as elements that associate with the lipid region of cell membranes.
Alpha helices and beta pleated sheets are examples of ________ protein structure.
Enzymes catalyze biochemical reactions by lowering their __________ .
Competitive inhibitors result in _____ Km, whereas non-competitive, or allosteric, inhibitors act _____ of substrate concentration.
Inhibition in which a product of a later step in a biochemical pathway blocks an earlier step is called ______ inhibition.
For questions 1 to 6, indicate whether the given nutrient is a macronutrient or a micronutrient.
Which component of soil has the greatest effect on CEC?
1. coarse sand
2. fine sand
Plants often exchange ions with soil during nutrient uptake. The soil around roots of plants that preferentially take up nitrogen as nitrate will tend to have a ________ pH.
The enzyme _____ is used by nitrogen-fixing bacteria, who often form symbioses with vascular plants.
1. phosphorus acquisition
2. nitrogen acquisition
3. water acquisition
4. protection from pathogens
Ecto- and endomycorrhizae potentially provide numerous benefits to plants. Among these is/are:
_____ transport occurs spontaneously along or down a chemical potential gradient, but _____ transport occurs against a chemical potential gradient and thus requires energy.
In determining direction of movement for ions, one must consider _____ potential and _____ potential.
diffuse easily; are actively pumped
Based on the data in this table, we would assume that calcium ions _________ into the cells and _________ out of the cells.
[external medium (mmolL-1)] = 1
[internal medium (mmolL-1)]
Predicted = 5360
Observed = 2
channel simple diffusion
carrier facilitated diffusion
pump active transport
Match the membrane protein type with its correct category of transport.
channel facilitated diffusion
carrier simple diffusion
pump active transport
_____ carriers in the tonoplast use a proton gradient generated by ATPases and pyrophosphatases to import cations into the vacuole.
Xylem _____ is the process of moving solutes from live xylem cells into dead cells for translocation to other plant parts.
xylem transport - cohesion and adhesion
insulation - high specific heat
transpirational cooling - high latent heat of vaporization
nutrient transport - excellent solvent
Match the properties of water on the right with the most appropriate function or benefit in plants on the left.
xylem transport high specific heat
insulation high latent heat of vaporization
transpirational cooling cohesion and adhesion
nutrient transport excellent solvent
In capillary transport, smaller capillaries provide _______ hydrostatic pressure, in comparison with larger capillaries.
Total water potential in plants is comprised of _____ potential, _____ potential, and _____ potential.
Diffusion is the passive movement of molecules from an area of _____ concentration to and area of _____ concentration.
temperature, solute concentration
The two factors that most influence solute potential are ________ and ________ .
10 - nothing
11 - the cell will take up water from the beaker
12 - zero
13 - zero
Use the data to answer questions 10 - 13.
Flaccid Cell: Psi p = 0 MPa, Psi s = -0.732 MPa, Psi w = -0.732 MPa
Turgid Cell: Psi p = 0.488 MPa, Psi s = -0.732 MPa, Psi w = -0.244 MPa
0.1M Sucrose solution: Psi p = 0 MPa, Psi s = -0.244 MPa, Psi w = -0.244 MPa
0.3M Sucrose solution: Psi p = 0 MPa, Psi s = -0.732 MPa, Psi w = -0.732 MPa
Item 10: What happens if one places the turgid cell into the 0.1M sucrose solution?
Item 11: What happens if one places the flaccid cell into the 0.1M sucrose solution?
Item 12: If placed into the 0.3M sucrose solution, the pressure potential inside the flaccid cell - at equilibrium - will be 1.----- Mpa.
Item 13: If placed into the 0.3M sucrose solution, the pressure potential inside the turgid cell - at equilibrium - will be 1.----- Mpa.
0 to -2 MPa
-0.2 to -10 MPa
-2 to -150 MPa
The approximate ranges of water potential in soil, plants, and air are:
Hydrostatic pressure potential is the largest fraction of water potential in the _____ and _____ .
Permanent wilting point
Field capacity - Available water =
Field capacity - Available water
Permanent wilting point =
_____ is a waxy substance that helps to waterproof plant cells and tissues.
Water uptake by roots is regulated by _____ in _____ cells.
Cavitation or embolism
_____ occurs when gas bubbles in xylem expand and break the column of water within a tracheid or vessel.
inside stomatal pore and outside stomatal pore
The water potential gradient is steepest between which two?
1. xylem and mesophyll cell wall
2. mesophyll cell wall and leaf air spaces
3. inside stomatal pore and outside stomatal pore
4. outside stomatal pore and bulk air surrounding the plant