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abdomen from readings for 2/8/12

abdomen

largest cavity of the body and contains many organs and structures that belong to various systems

alimentary canal

continuous, hollow, muscular tube, begins at mouth and terminates at anus, includes teeth, salivary glands, liver, gallbladder, and pancreas

accessory digestive organs

includes the liver, gallbladder, and pancreas

liver

the largest gland of the body located in RUQ, inferior to diaphragm; produces and secretes bile for fat emulsification, metabolizes protein, fat, carbs; stores vitamins, produces substances for coagulation, antibodies, and detoxifies harmful substances

gallbladder

stores bile, releases to duodenum, assists with fat digestions

pancreas

triangular shaped gland in the LUQ, works as both an endocrine and exocrine gland. endocrine: secretes insulin//exocrine: releases pancreatic juice to mix with bile; assists with protein, fat, carb digestion

peritoneum

thin, double layer of serous membrane in abdominal cavity, covers most external layers of the digestive organs

mapping

process of dividing the abdominal cavity into quadrants/regions for examination purposes; it extends from the sternum and creates the RUQ, RLQ, LUQ, LLQ

striae

"stretch marks"; silvery, shiny, irregular markings on skin

bruit

pulsatile and blowing

friction rub

rough, grating sound caused by rubbing together of organs/organ rubbing on peritoneum

Blumberg's sign

sharp stabbing pain as compression area returns to noncompressed state

ascites

abnormal collection of fluid in peritoneal cavity

referred pain

located where development of structures occurred in fetus

hernia

rupture, protrusion of organ/structure through an abnormal opening/weakened area in body wall

malnutrition

imbalance, deficit/excess of required nutrients of balanced diet

obesity

20% or more above body weight

overweight

10%-20% in excess of above body weight

anorexia nervosa

complex psychosocial problem characterized by severely restricted intake of nutrients and low body weight

dysphagia

difficulty swallowing

esophagitis

inflammation of the esophagus

peritonitis

inflammation of the peritoneal membranes surrounding the abdomen

hepatitis

inflammation of the liver

borborygmi

stomach growls

peristalsis

wavelike movement produced by muscle fibers of intestinal wall, propels intestinal contents forward

bowel sounds

irregular gurgling noises occur every 5-30 seconds, from digestive contents being moved through the intestines peristalsis

umbilical hernia

protrusion at umbilicus and visible at birth, common in children with African and Mediterranean heritage, more than 95% are resolved by the age of 5

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