APCG: Sovereignty, Authority, and Power (2)

30 terms by jerryhoush 

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State

Or country, controls what happens within their borders. The organization that maintains a monopoly of violence over a territory: aka-the state defines who can/can't use weapons and force rules to violence.

Institutions

Stable, long-lasting organizations that help to turn political ideas into policy (bureaucracies, legislatures, judicial systems, and political parties).

Sovereignty

The ability to carry out actions or policies within their borders independently from interference either from internal or external pressures.

Nation

A group of people that are bound together by a common political identity.

Nation-State

When state boundaries and national identity coincide.

Failed State

A state so weak that its political structures collapse, leading to anarchy and violence. A state within which the government has lost the ability to provide the most basic of public services

Regime

The rules that a state sets and follows in exerting its power.

Democratic

Indirect-with elected officials representing the people.
Direct-When individuals...

Parliamentary System

Where citizens vote for legislative representatives, which in turn vote for leaders of the executive branch.

Presidential System

Where citizens vote for legislative representatives as well as for executive branch leaders, and the two branches function with separation of powers.

Semi-Presidential System

Where a prime minister coexists with a president who is directly elected by the people who holds a significant degree of power.

Authoritarian

Decisions are made by political elites-those that hold political power-without much input from citizens.

Totalitarianism

Generally have a strong ideological goal (like communism) that many authoritarian systems lack, and authoritarian governments do not necessarily use violence as a technique for destroying any obstacles to their governance.

Military Rule

Nondemocratic rule, the military may directly intervene in politics as the organization that can solve the problems. Usually begins with a coup d' 'etat, a forced takeover of the government.

Corporatism

A method through which business, labor, and/or other interest groups bargain with the state over economic policy.

Pluralism

Basic principle of democracy, a situation in which power is split among many groups that compete for the chance to influence the governments decision-making.

Democratic Corporatism

Interest representation is institutionalized through recognition by the state. Organizations develop institutionalized and legally binding links with the state agencies, so that the groups become semi-public agencies, acting on behalf of the state.

Legitimacy

The right to rule, as determined by their own citizens.

Traditional Legitimacy

Rests upon the belief that tradition should determine who should rule and how.

Charismatic Legitimacy

Based on the dynamic personality of an individual leader or a small group. Napoleon or Hitler, etc.

Rational-Legal Legitimacy

Based neither on tradition or force of a single person, but rather on a system of well established laws and procedures. Highly institutionalized, or anchored by strong institutions.

Factors That Encourage Legitimacy

Economic well-being, historical tradition/longevity, charismatic leadership, nationalism/shared political culture, satisfaction with the government, performance/responsiveness.

Political Culture

Accepts both the legitimacy of the regime and solutions to major problems.

Social Capital

Democratic and civic habits of discussion, compromise, and respect for differences, which grow out of participation in voluntary organizations.

Political Ideologies

Sets of political values held by individuals regarding the basic goals of government and politics.

Liberalism

Places emphasis on individual political and economic freedom.

Communism

Generally values equality over freedom.

Socialism

Shares the value of equality with communism but is also influenced by the liberal value of freedom.

Fascism

Rejects the value of equality, and accepts the idea that people and groups exist in degrees of inferiority and superiority.

Marxism-Leninism

The theoretical foundation of communism based on the ideas of Karl Marx and the leader of the Russian Revolution, Lenin. Marxism emphasizes the struggle between exploiting and exploited classes (proletariat). Leninism emphasizes the strategy and organization to be used by the communist party to overthrow capitalism and seize power as a first step on the road to communism.

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