All The Science Study Guide

202 terms by NIGHTMARES 

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Physical science is the study of

Matter and energy

What is sometimes called "applied science". applies scientific understanding to solve problems. and can refer to objects used to accomplish tasks?

Technology

Who use physical science to explain how planets use carbon dioxide and water to make food?

Botanists

Who can help scientists predict and observation that they might make in the future?

Theories

The field of ______ uses physical science to explain the composition of planets, the light emitted by stars, and the motion of different galaxies in the universe

Astronomy

After forming a hypothesis, you should ______

test your hypothesis

______ is a branch of physical science that studies earthquake waves and rock composition

geology

A(n) ______ uses physical science to explain the nitrogen cycle and the transfer of energy between organisms in a food chain.

ecologist

Physical science is used to study the movement of air masses, weather patterns, and the composition of the atmosphere in the field of ______

meteorology

Scientists usually state ______ in an "If...then..." format

predictions

Analyzing the results of your experiment can be ______

organizing your data into tables and graphs

After concluding that your tests support your hypothesis, you should ______

publish the results so that other scientists can learn from you

The big bang is considered to be ______

a theory

Graduated cylinders are used to measure ______

the volume of liquids

A plastic disk's density is less than water but great than oil. If you put all three into a glass container, where would you see the disk?

Between the water and the oil

Air does NOT have ______

length

All matter has ______, even a rock sitting still.

energy

What tool is used to measure mass?

Balance

The SI unit for temperature is ______

kelvins (K)

Stopwatches, rulers and computers are all ______ that are used to collect data during an experiment

tools

As you explore ______, you learn about the relationship between matter and energy

physical science

Which of the following is NOT a chemical property?

Malleability

Your weight could be expressed in what units?

Pounds and newtons

You accidentally break your pencil in half. This is an example of ______

A physical change

Which of the following statements about density is TRUE?

Density depends on mass and volume

During physical changes, matter always retains its

identity

One way to compare the densities of oil and water is to pour the liquids into a glass container and observe how they ______

separate into layers

The amount of space taken up by an object is known as the object's ______

volume

When a canoe overturns a pocket of air forms inside the canoe because air ______

has volume, takes up space even though it's invisible, and is matter

If you know the volume of the container a gas is in, then you know the ______ of the gas

volume

Over time, you can expect the amount of mass to change in a ______

bowling ball

Gravity affects an object's ______

weight

The SI unit of force is the ______

newton (N)

Given that the mass of the moon is one sixth of the mass of Earth, ______

a man could jump six times higher on the moon than on Earth

Tom's 7year old brother is more difficult to pick up than his 2 year old sister because ______

his brother has more inertia

How do you measure the volume of a screw?

place it in a graduated cylinder and seeing how much liquid it displaces

Does an elephant or bowling ball have more gravitational pull on it?

elephant

Does a golf ball or ping-pong ball have less matter?

ping pong ball

What are boiling points and freezing points?

physical properties

In condensation, boiling, or melting do atoms become more stable?

condensation

What happens when a gas in a balloon increase?

the volume of the gas increase and the speed of particles increase

What is dew an example of?

condensation

the particles of water that evaporate from an open container have _______ than the particles that remain

more speed and higher energy

Why do hydraulic brakes work?

liquids tend to maintain a constant volume

Fulgurite is an example of _____

amorphous solid

The meniscus in a graduated cylindar is caused by ____

surface tension

Is water, tar, lava, or honey least viscous?

water

Mercury, water, or rubbing alcohol has the most surface tension?

mercury

In a gaseous state, particles_____

move independently from one another, move fast enough to break away completely from one another, and have empty space between them

during a change of state, the _____ of a substance changes

energy

What is heat?

a transfer of energy that causes the temp. of a substance to change and can lead to a change of state

What is a melting point?

the temp. at which a substance changes from a solid to a liquid

If gallium is 30 degrees and your body heat is 37 degrees, gallium would melt in your hand because ____

energy is transferred from your hand to gallium

Water is a liquid nd iron is a solid at room temp., so iron must have a ____ than water.

higher freezing point

Does pressure decrease as particles move faster?

no

Would solid dry ice be likely to undergo sublimination?

yes

what occurs at 100 degrees celsius?

steam condenses into liquid water

Which of the following is an example of a physical change?

A Popsicle melting

The density of a particular substance is always the same at a give ______

pressure and temperature

A favorable chemical property of iron is its ______

nonreactivity with oil and gasoline

Characteristic properties of an object ______

stay the same regardless of the sample's size

As you clean the kitchen cupboards, you find an unlabeled container of white powder. As you set the container on the countertop, you accidentally spill some of the powder into a cup of vinegar. The mixture fizzes and bubbles, which means that the white powder is ______

baking soda

Although the Statue of Liberty is made of copper (originally an orange-brown color), it is green because the copper has interacted with the substances in the air to form new substances with different properties. This is an example of a ______

chemical change

The importance of gravity came to Isaac Newton in 1666, when he saw an apple fall from a tree. The measurement of gravitational force is expressed in newtons. One newton is approximately the weight of one ______

large apple

Precious metal in catalytic converters on cars change harmful carbon monoxide exhaust fumes to harmless ones. This is an example of a ______ change

chemical

The SI unit for expressing the amount of matter in an object is the

kilogram (kg)

Makin aluminum foil demonstrates ______

malleability

When you add bleach to the water while you are washing your clothes, you are encouraging ______

a chemical change

Dissolving sail in water demonstrates ______

Solubility and physical change

What are the effects of gravity on two objects?

attraction

Protons push away from each other in the nucleus because of the____

electromagnetic force

The ____ overcomes the elctromagnetic force in an atomic nucleus, holding the nucleus together

strong force

Will an atom of aluminum-27 have 13 neutrons?

no

If the atomic number of nickel is 28, how many protons will it have

28

What is the mass number of an atom with 26 protons, 28 neutrons, and 26 electrons

54

An element that is a very reactive gas is most likely a member of the _____

halogens

Is the density of an element found on the periodic table?

no

Mosely rearranged the elements in Mendeleev's periodic table in terms of _____

atomic number

When an element seemed to be missing from the table, Mendeleev would ____

predict the element would be discovered, predict the properites of the element, and leave a gap

What does each square on the periodic table have?

name, chemical symbol, atomic number, atomic mass

The elements in a period on the periodic table become_____

less metallic moving from left to right

What does the zig zag line do?

helps you identify elements as metals, nonmetals, or metalloids

A column of elements is called _____

a period

A number in parentheses on the periodic tbale is the _____

atomic mass

Is lithium, calcium, or titanium more reactive?

lithium

Making aluminum foil demonstrates_____

malleability

when a substance looses or absorbs energy, what can change?

it's tempurature, its state, and the speed of its particles

when a person wearing glasses enters a warm house after being outside in the cold, their glasses fog up because of

condensation

on earth, natural _______ are found in lightning and fire

plasmas

people in warmer climates wear light, loose-fitting clothes to allow their perspiration to

evaporate

if energy is removed from water that is at 1 degree Celcius, the water will

cool down

water from a lake enters the atmosphere through the process of

vaporization

a substance that pours very slowly has a high

viscosity

which is an endothermic change: melting, freezing, or condensation

melting

which of the following is an exothermic change: melting, condensation, vaporization, or sublimation

condensation

for forms when some of the gaseous water in the air condenses to form tiny drops of liquid water. This occurs when

the air tempurature drops

all of the following are endothermic EXCEPT: vaporization, melting, freezing, sublimation

freezing

_________ is a change of state that is often used to cool down football players on the sideline

vaporization

what increases the solubility of a gas in a liquid?

decreasing the temperature

which of the following best desscribes chicken noodle soop: element, mixture, compund, solution

mixture

what would NOT increase the rate at which a solid dissolves?

decreasing the temperature

an element that conducts thermal energy well and is easily shaped is a

metal

which of the following is a chemical property: flammability, density, melting point, ductility

flammability

how is a mixture different from a compound?

each substance in a mixture keeps most of its characteristic properties

the particles in both a suspension and a colloid can

scatter light

when elements form compunds, the elements

react to form a new substance with new properties

what does NOT describe elements?

they can be broken down into simpler substances

an element can be broken down into simpler substances by chemical or physical means?

neither; it cannot be broken down

the 3 major categories of elements are

metals, metalloids, nonmetals

what describes compounds?

composed of elements that join in a specific ratio according to their masses

what process could break down a compound into simpler substances: grinding, filtration, electrolysis, distillation

electrolysis

what element in nature is needed 2 make proteins?

nitrogen

what describes mixtures?

made of 2 or more substances that keep their identities

a material is only a mixture if

you can physically separate the different components

_____ is used to separate hydrogen and oxygen

electrolysis

which is a mixture: carbon dioxide, sodium, chloride, air, ammonia

air

what is often called the universal solvent?

water

soulutions can be

liquids, solids, gases

brass is NOT a(n): solid, alloy, solution, suspension

suspension

a suspension is what type of mixture?

heterogeneous

you have a clear liquid. light passes through it and you know that its particles do not separate in a centrifuge. the liquid is most likely a what?

solution

an unknown sample scatters light and passes through a filter without leaving a residue. its most likely a what?

colloid

an unkown sample scatters light and is separated by a filter. its most likely a what?

suspension

when mixed with other elements, ________ become good conductors

metalloids

18g of water can be broken down into 2 g of hydrogen and 16 g of oxygen. what is the mass ratio of hydrogen to oxygen in water?

1:8

which of the following is NOT a physical property: melting point, density, reactivity with acid, boiling point

reactivity with acid

which is not a solution: brass, air, ocean water, carbon dioxide

carbon dioxide

you add sugar to hot tea and iced tea untill each is saturated. which will have a higher concentration

the hot tea

why does mixing increase the speed at which a solid dissolves?

it causes the solute particles to separate from one another and spread out more quickly among the solvent particles

why does heating increase the speed at which a solid dissolves?

it causes particles to move more quickly, causing them to spread out more quickly

why does crushing a solid increase the speed at which a solid dissolves?

it increases the amount of contact between the solute and the solvent

what is not a colloid: milk, mayonnaise, blood, fog

blood

what is true of protons?

they are part of the nucleus of the atom

what is true of neutrons?

they have a mass of 1 amu

isotopes exist because atoms of the same element can have different numbers of

neutrons

an atom with 79 protons, 79 electrons, and 118 netrons would have a mass number of

197

the smallest particle into which an element can be divided and still be the same substance is a(n)

electron

the size of atoms

vary widely

atoms are composed of

electrons, protons, neutrons

electrons are particles that

are located outside the nucleus and are negatively charged

an atom becomes an ion when

there are unequal numbers of protons and electrons

the atomic number of an atom is the total number of

protons

what describes isotopes?

they are atoms of the same element, they have the same number of protons but different neutrons, they have the same atomic number but have different mass numbers

isotopes have different

mass numbers

atoms that are isotopes of each other

are the same element

What describes what happens when an atom becomes an ion with a 2- charge?

the atom gains two electrons

What type of bonda are malleability and ductility associated with?

metallic

What are of the periodic table do you find elements that easily gain electrons?

on the right side

What kinds of element tends to lose electrons when it forms bonds?

metal

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