All The Science Study Guide

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Physical science is the study of

Matter and energy

Technology

Botanists

Theories

Astronomy

geology

ecologist

meteorology

predictions

Analyzing the results of your experiment can be ______

organizing your data into tables and graphs

publish the results so that other scientists can learn from you

a theory

Graduated cylinders are used to measure ______

the volume of liquids

A plastic disk's density is less than water but great than oil. If you put all three into a glass container, where would you see the disk?

Between the water and the oil

length

energy

Balance

kelvins (K)

tools

physical science

Malleability

Your weight could be expressed in what units?

Pounds and newtons

You accidentally break your pencil in half. This is an example of ______

A physical change

Which of the following statements about density is TRUE?

Density depends on mass and volume

identity

One way to compare the densities of oil and water is to pour the liquids into a glass container and observe how they ______

separate into layers

volume

When a canoe overturns a pocket of air forms inside the canoe because air ______

has volume, takes up space even though it's invisible, and is matter

volume

bowling ball

weight

newton (N)

Given that the mass of the moon is one sixth of the mass of Earth, ______

a man could jump six times higher on the moon than on Earth

Tom's 7year old brother is more difficult to pick up than his 2 year old sister because ______

his brother has more inertia

How do you measure the volume of a screw?

place it in a graduated cylinder and seeing how much liquid it displaces

elephant

ping pong ball

What are boiling points and freezing points?

physical properties

condensation

What happens when a gas in a balloon increase?

the volume of the gas increase and the speed of particles increase

condensation

the particles of water that evaporate from an open container have _______ than the particles that remain

more speed and higher energy

Why do hydraulic brakes work?

liquids tend to maintain a constant volume

amorphous solid

surface tension

water

mercury

In a gaseous state, particles_____

move independently from one another, move fast enough to break away completely from one another, and have empty space between them

energy

What is heat?

a transfer of energy that causes the temp. of a substance to change and can lead to a change of state

What is a melting point?

the temp. at which a substance changes from a solid to a liquid

If gallium is 30 degrees and your body heat is 37 degrees, gallium would melt in your hand because ____

energy is transferred from your hand to gallium

Water is a liquid nd iron is a solid at room temp., so iron must have a ____ than water.

higher freezing point

no

yes

what occurs at 100 degrees celsius?

steam condenses into liquid water

Which of the following is an example of a physical change?

A Popsicle melting

The density of a particular substance is always the same at a give ______

pressure and temperature

A favorable chemical property of iron is its ______

nonreactivity with oil and gasoline

Characteristic properties of an object ______

stay the same regardless of the sample's size

baking soda

chemical change

large apple

chemical

kilogram (kg)

malleability

When you add bleach to the water while you are washing your clothes, you are encouraging ______

a chemical change

Dissolving sail in water demonstrates ______

Solubility and physical change

attraction

Protons push away from each other in the nucleus because of the____

electromagnetic force

strong force

no

28

54

halogens

no

atomic number

When an element seemed to be missing from the table, Mendeleev would ____

predict the element would be discovered, predict the properites of the element, and leave a gap

What does each square on the periodic table have?

name, chemical symbol, atomic number, atomic mass

The elements in a period on the periodic table become_____

less metallic moving from left to right

What does the zig zag line do?

helps you identify elements as metals, nonmetals, or metalloids

a period

atomic mass

lithium

malleability

when a substance looses or absorbs energy, what can change?

it's tempurature, its state, and the speed of its particles

condensation

plasmas

evaporate

cool down

vaporization

viscosity

melting

condensation

for forms when some of the gaseous water in the air condenses to form tiny drops of liquid water. This occurs when

the air tempurature drops

freezing

vaporization

what increases the solubility of a gas in a liquid?

decreasing the temperature

mixture

what would NOT increase the rate at which a solid dissolves?

decreasing the temperature

metal

flammability

how is a mixture different from a compound?

each substance in a mixture keeps most of its characteristic properties

scatter light

when elements form compunds, the elements

react to form a new substance with new properties

what does NOT describe elements?

they can be broken down into simpler substances

an element can be broken down into simpler substances by chemical or physical means?

neither; it cannot be broken down

the 3 major categories of elements are

metals, metalloids, nonmetals

what describes compounds?

composed of elements that join in a specific ratio according to their masses

electrolysis

nitrogen

what describes mixtures?

made of 2 or more substances that keep their identities

a material is only a mixture if

you can physically separate the different components

electrolysis

air

water

soulutions can be

liquids, solids, gases

suspension

heterogeneous

solution

colloid

suspension

metalloids

1:8

which of the following is NOT a physical property: melting point, density, reactivity with acid, boiling point

reactivity with acid

carbon dioxide

the hot tea

why does mixing increase the speed at which a solid dissolves?

it causes the solute particles to separate from one another and spread out more quickly among the solvent particles

why does heating increase the speed at which a solid dissolves?

it causes particles to move more quickly, causing them to spread out more quickly

why does crushing a solid increase the speed at which a solid dissolves?

it increases the amount of contact between the solute and the solvent

blood

what is true of protons?

they are part of the nucleus of the atom

what is true of neutrons?

they have a mass of 1 amu

neutrons

197

electron

vary widely

atoms are composed of

electrons, protons, neutrons

electrons are particles that

are located outside the nucleus and are negatively charged

an atom becomes an ion when

there are unequal numbers of protons and electrons

protons

what describes isotopes?

they are atoms of the same element, they have the same number of protons but different neutrons, they have the same atomic number but have different mass numbers

mass numbers

atoms that are isotopes of each other

are the same element

What describes what happens when an atom becomes an ion with a 2- charge?

the atom gains two electrons

metallic

What are of the periodic table do you find elements that easily gain electrons?

on the right side

metal

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