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Acculturation

The modification of the social patterns, traits, or structures of one group or society by contact with those of another.

Animism

The belief that all inanimate objects have a soul or spirit.

Artifacts

An object that was made by an human being, often found as remnants of civilization.

Assimilation

Process in which people of one culture merge into and another culture.

Baha 'i

Started in Iran in 1800s. Bahai is based on two people. Bahai doesn't take the Qur'an literally. They don't believe in angels or devils. heaven or hell are not places they are condition of the soul. All religions come from the same source.

Behaviors

Actions that people may take, are generally based on values and beliefs

Beliefs

Specific statements that people hold to be true, always based on values.

Bilingualism

The ability to speak two languages fluently.

Buddhism

A religion, the world's third major universalizing religion, with 365 million followers, which was founded in India, the religion diffused along the Silk road and water routes.

Confucianism

Ideas of Confucius, emphasizing such values as family, tradition, and mutual respect.

Contagious diffusion

A form of diffusion in which almost all individuals and areas spread outward from the source region are affected.

Creole

forms when a pidgin becomes the first language of a group of speakers

Cultural determinism

cultural influences determine the behaviors and personalities of people

Cultural diffusion

the spread of cultural elements from one society to another

Cultural ecology

Geographic approach that emphasizes human-environment relationships.

Cultural geography

The subfield of human geography that looks at how cultures vary over space.

Cultural Hearths

Heartland, source area, innovation center, place of origin of a major culture

Cultural landscape

the visible imprint of human activity and culture on the landscape

Cultural relativism

the perspective that a foreign culture should not be judged by the standards of a home culture and that a behavior or way of thinking must be examined in its cultural context

Cultural transmission

the process by which one generation passes culture to the next

Culture complex

A related set of culture traits descriptive of one aspect of a society's behavior or activity (may be assoc. with religious beliefs or business practices).

Culture region

an area in which people have many shared culture traits

Culture system

A collection of interacting elements taken together shape a group's collective identity

Culture trait

A single element of normal practice in a culture, such as the wearing of a turban.

Daoism

philosophical system developed by of Lao-tzu and Chuang-tzu advocating a simple honest life and noninterference with the course of natural events

Dialect

the usage or vocabulary that is characteristic of a specific group of people

Diasporas

the migration of religious or ethnic groups to foreign lands despite their continued affiliation with the land and customs of their origin

Durkheim's sacred and proface

Durkheim believed that everything was a function of society, and so naturally his ideas and views on religion are from the stand point that it too is a function of society, ordinary (defines most objects, events, and experiences) and extraordinary (inspires a sense of awe and reverence)

Eastern Orthodox

derived from the Byzantine Church and adhering to Byzantine rites

Environmental determinism

the view that the natural environment has a controlling influence over various aspects of human life including cultural development

Ethnic religion

A religion with a relatively concentrated spatial distribution whose principles are likely to be based on the physical characteristics of the particular location in which its adherents are concentrated.

Ethnocentrism

belief in the superiority of one's own ethnic group

Extinct language

A language that was once used by people in daily activities but is no longer used.

Folk culture

Culture traditionally practiced by a small, homogeneous, rural group living in relative isolation from other groups.anyone in the world

Folk Culture region

Culture traditionally practiced by a small, homogeneous, rural group living in relative isolation from other groups.

Folk life

the composite culture, both material and non-material, that shapes the lives of folk societies

Geographic region

formed by a culture region representing an entire culture system that intertwines with its locational and environmental circumstances

Hagerstrand, Torste

A famous geographer that wrote about cultural diffusion about the same time as Carl sauer

Hierarchial diffusion

The spread of an idea from persons or nodes of authority or power to other persons or places

Hinduism

a body of religious and philosophical beliefs and cultural practices native to India and characterized by a belief in reincarnation and a supreme being of many forms and natures

Humanism

the doctrine emphasizing a person's capacity for self-realization through reason

Independent inventions

Process by which humans inovate creativly finding solutions to problems, the term for a trait with many cultural hearths that developed independent of each other

Indo-European language family

Family of languages with the greatest number of speakers, spoken in most of Europe and areas of European settlement and in much of southwestern and southern Asia.

Islam

the religion of Muslims collectively which governs their civilization and way of life

Isoglasses

A boundary that separates regions in which different language usages predominate

Judaism

the monotheistic religion of the Jews having its spiritual and ethical principles embodied chiefly in the Torah and in the Talmud

Language

the mental faculty or power of vocal communication

Language families

Group of languages with a shared but fairly distant origin

Language sub-family

group of languages with more commonality than a language family (indicates they have branched off more recently in history)

Lingua franca

a common language used by speakers of different languages

Linguistic fragmentation

Many languages spoken by a small group of people.

Linguistic geography

the study of the geographical distribution of linguistic features

Mahayana

one of two great schools of Buddhist doctrine emphasizing a common search for universal salvation especially through faith alone

Marxism

the economic and political theories of Karl Marx and Friedrich Engels that hold that human actions and institutions are economically determined and that class struggle is needed to create historical change and that capitalism will untimately be superseded

Material culture

The physical manifestations of human activities; includes tools ,campsites, art, and structures. The most durable aspects of culture

Migrant diffusion

spread of an idea through people, in which the phenomena weakens or dies out at its previous source

Monotheistic religion

a religion with one god

Multilingualism

the ability to communicate in more than two languages

Non-material culture

this type of culture consists of abstract concepts of values, beliefs, and behaviors.

Norms

the rules and expectations by which a society guides the behavior of its members

Official language

the language endorsed and recognized by the government as the one that everyone should know and use

Pidgin

an amalgamation of languages that borrows words from several

Popular culture

found in large heterogeneous societies that are bonded by a common culture despite the many differences among the people that share it

Protestants

About 25% of the world's Christians are this. This branch first split from the Catholic Church in the 16th century, and later divided into hundred of denominations. It is strong in North America, Northern Europe, Britain, South Africa, and Australia

Regional identity

Identification with a specific geographic region of a nation.

Religion: Branches, denominations, sects

large and basic divisions within a religion; divisions of branches that unite local groups in a single administrative body; relatively small groups that do not affiliate with more mainstream denominations

Relation diffusion

the process of diffusion in which individuals or populations migrating from the source areas physically carry the innovation or idea to new areas

Roman Catholics

Christians in the West who were under the pope.

Sauer, Carl

focused on diffusion in Agricultural Origins and Dispersals, written in 1952

Shamanism

an ethnic religion in which people follow their shaman, a religious leader and teacher who is believed to be in contact with the supernatural

Shiite

a member of the branch of Islam that regards Ali as the legitimate successor to Mohammed and rejects the first three caliphs

Sikhism

combines beliefs from Hinduism and Islam, but centers on the teachings of its founder, Guru Nanak.

Standard language

The form of a language used for official government business, education, and mass communications.

Stimulus diffusion

The spread of an underlying principle, even though a specific characteristic is rejected.

Sunni

comprise 83% of all Muslims and is the largest branch in the Middle East and Asia

Symbolic landscape

smaller landscapes that symbolize a bigger area or category. iconic landscapes, i.e. the state capitol symbolizes WI. every landscape can symbolize something, but these are focal points for people's attention

Symbolic landscape

carry a particular meaning recognized by people who share a culture

Syncretism

the fusion of originally different inflected forms (resulting in a reduction in the use of inflections)

Tantrayana

with its emphasis on magic as well as different meditation techniques, found primarily in Tibet and Mongolia

Theraveda

characterized by a stricter adherence to the original teachings of the Buddha, this branch is strong in Southeast Asia

Time-Distance decay

The declining degree of acceptance of an idea or innovation with increasing time and distance from its point of origin or source.

Toponymy

the study of place names, a special interest of liguistic geography

Traditional religion

an integral part of a local culture and society

Transculturation

cultural borrowing that occurs when different cultures of approximately equal complexity and technological level come into close contact

Universalizing religion

attempts to be global in its appeal to people, wherever they may live in the world, not just to those in one location. The three main ones are Christianity, Islam, and Buddhism

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