Chapter 4 Social Structure and Social Interaction

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Macrosociology

focuses on broad features of society

Social Interaction

What people do when they come together

Social Structure

refers to the typical patterns of a group such as its usual relationships between men and women or students and teachers

Social class

Large numbers of people who have similar amounts of income and education and who work at a jobs that are roughly comparable in prestige

Status

in a different way to refer to the position that someone occupies

Status set

to refer to all the structures or positions that you occupy

Ascribed status

is involuntary

Achieved status

in contrast are voluntary

Status symbol

signs that identify a status

Master status

cuts across your other status

Status inconsistency

Although the status usually fir together fairly well some people have a contradiction or mismatch between their statuses

Roles

the behaviors, obligations, and privileges attached to a status were already set up for you

Socialization

is through what we usually want to do what our roles indicate is appropriate

group

consists of people who interact with one another and who feel that the values interest and norms they have in common are important

Social institutions

the standard or usual ways that a society meets its basic needs vitally affect your life

Society

which consists of people who share a culture and a territory

Hunting and gathering societies

have a few social divisions and little inequality

Shaman

an individual thought to be able to influence spiritual forces, but shaman must hep obtain food

pastoral societies

are based on the pasturing of animals (herding)

Horticultural Societies

are based on the cultivation of plans by the use of hand tools (gardening)

Agricultural society

people developed cities and what is popular known as "culture" activities such as art, music, literature, and architecture

Industrial society

was greater than anything that preceded it and also was its social inequality

Postindustrial ( information) society

the change is so vast that sociologists say that a new type of society has emerged

Biotech society

The economy will center on applying and alternating genetic structures

Social integration

Their members being united by shared values and other social bonds

Mechanical solidarity

for smaller groups

Division of labor

As societies get larger,they develop different kinds of work

Organic solidarity

Durkheim called this new form of solidarity based on interdependence

Gemeinschaft

"intimate community" to describe village life the type of society in which everyone knows everyone else

Gesellschaft

"impersonal association"

Body Language

the ways people use their bodies to give messages to others

Dramaturgy

Goffman added a new twist to microsociology when he recast the theatrical

Impression management

Goffman called these efforts to manage the impressions that others receive

Role performance

The particular emphasis or interpretation that we give a role our "style"

Role conflict

which family, friendship, students, and work roles come crashing together

Teamwork

two or more people working together to help a performance come off as planned

Face-saving behavior

doesn't come off quite right the team might try to save

Ethnomethodology

is the study of how people use commonsense understanding to make sense of life

Background assumptions

your ideas about the way life is and the way things ought to work

Thomas theorem

W.I. becomes known as the definition of the situation

Social construction of reality

social groups to which we belong, holds particular views of life

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