Psychology Exam 1

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chapters 1,2, 5

Psychology

The discipline concerned with behavior and mental processes and how they are affected by an organism's physical state, mental state, and external environment.

Psychobable

off brand psychology. A main stream media of easy fixes and answers to life's problems and challenges.

Phrenology

a theory that many peoples strengths, skills, and traits are related to parts of their brains and can be determined by the shape of their sculls.

Philosophy

First science.

Established first psychological laboratory

Wilhem Wundt.

First person to announce psychology as a science in 1873

Wilhem Wundt.

Three Early Psychologies

Structuralism, Functionalism, and Psychoanalysis

One of Wilhem Wundt's students who modified his work and gave it the name _______

E.B. Tichener, structuralism

Structuralism

To analyze sensations, images, and feelings into basic elements. For example an individual would be asked to break down patterns in a sound or describe different components of taste when biting into an orange.

First american psychologist. Who developed _______

William James, Functionalism

Functionalism

Focuses on what happens when and organism does something, and how and why they do it. Influenced by charles Darwin, the answers to these questions all have a particular reason mentally as a way of adapting to survival.

Psychoanalysis

Listening to a patients symptoms such as nervousness and anxiety and diagnosing them based on mental symptoms opposed to physical.

Five Psychological Perspectives

Biological, Learning, Cognitive, Sociocultural, and Psychodynamic.

Biological Perspective

How bodily events affect behavior, feelings, and thoughts. ex. impulses shot along intricate pathway, hormones releasing...etc

Learning

How the environment and experience affect a person's actions. Focuses on environmental rewards and punishers the maintain and discourage specific behaviors

Cognitive

What goes on in peoples heads. how people reason, remember, understand language, solve problems, explain experiences, acquire moral standards, and form beliefs.

Sociocultural

Focuses on social and cultural forces outside the individual. forces that shape every aspect of behavior form how we kiss to where we eat.

Psychodynamic

Deals with unconscious dynamic within the individual. Digs below the persons behavior to get to unconscious roots.

Two influential movements of Psychology

Humanist Psychology and Feminist Psychology

Rejected the two dominant psychological approaches of the time, psychoanalysis and behaviorism.

Humanist Psychology

Rejected Psychoanalysis with its emphasis on dangerous sexual and aggressive impulses as too pessimistic a view of human nature. Overlooked human resilience and the capacity for joy.

Humanist Psychology

Rejected Behaviorism with its emphasis on observable acts as too mechanistic and mindless a view of human nature. Ignored what really matters to humans, their uniques hopes and aspirations.

Humanist Psychology

Believed that human behavior is not completely determined by either unconscious behaviors or the environments. People are capable of free will and therefore have the ability to make more of themselves.

Humanist Psychology

Emerged in the 1970s and noted that a majority of psychological experiments had only been done on young white males in the middle class. They opened the door to experiments and research on all humans regardless of sex, age or gender.

Feminist Psychology

Spurred the growth of research on menstruation, motherhood, the dynamics of power and sexuality relationships, definitions of masculinity and femininity, gender roles, and sexist attitudes.

Feminist Psychology

Most important group of psychologist are ______

Teachers

After teachers there is ______ psychologist

treatment

Psychologist also______...

apply research to settings such as business and classrooms

Basic Psychology

Pure research, data, and statistics.

Applied Psychology

concerned with practical uses of psychological knowledge. Try to apple basic psychology in a practical manner to everyday life.

Major non-clinical specialties

Experimental, educational, developmental, industrial, and psychometric.

Experimental psychologist

conduct lab studies of learning, motivation, emotion, sensation and perception, physiology, and cognition.

Educational Psychologist

study psychological principles that explain learning and search for ways to improve educational systems.

Developmental psychologist

study how people change and grow over time physical, mental and socially.

Industrial/ organizational psychologist

study behavior in the workplace.

Psychometric psychologist

design and evaluate test of mental abilities, aptitudes, interest, and personality.

Hypothesis

a statement that attempts to describe or explain a given behavior. an educated guess.

Theory

an organized system of assumptions and principles that purports to explain certain phenomena and how they are related.

Descriptive Methods

allow researchers to describe and predict behavior but not necessarily to choose one explanation offer competing ones.

Case study

study one person or group and study everything about that person or group.

Correlational Study

looking for relationships. know the difference between descriptive and correlational

Sample

study of a larger group. smaller group that represents big group.

Five characteristics of an ideal scientist

Precision, skepticism, reliance on empirical evidence, Willingness to make "risky predictions," and oppenness

Positive Correlation

high values of one variable are associated with high values of the other and that low values of one variable are associated with low values of the other.

Perfect positive correlation

1 to 1. 1lb of food= 1lb of weight

Negative Correlation

means that high values of one variable are associated with low values of the other.

Naturalistic observation

don't know they're being studied.

Lab study

not the best info, for fear of being judged but you are able to repeat the study.

Cross-sectional study

studies people of different ages and backgrounds.

Longitudinal Study

study in which people are followed and periodically reassessed over a period of time.

Biological Rhythm

a natural rhythm that is necessary for survival.

Circadian Rhythm

biological rhythm that occurs once a day.

Intradium Rhythm

that occurs more than 24 hours.

Ultradium Rhythm

occurs less then 24 hours

Experiment

controlled test of hypothesis in which the researcher manipulates on variable to discover the affects on another.

Standardize

in test construction, to give develop uniform procedures for given and scoring a test

Norms

In test construction, established standards of performance.

Reliability

In test construction, the consistency of scores derived from a test, from one time and place to another.

Validity

the ability of a test to measure what it was designed to measure.

Surveys

questionnaires and interviews that ask people directly about their experiences, attitudes or opinions.

Random assignment

a procedure for assigning people to experimental and control groups in which each individual has the same probability as any other of being assigned to a given group.

Placebo

An inactive substance or fake treatment used as a control in experiment or given by a medical practitioner to a patient.

Single-blind study

an experiment in which participants do not know whether they are in an experimental or control group.

Experimenter effects

unintended changes in study participants behavior due to cues inadvertently given by the experimenter.

Double blind study

an experiment in which neither the people being studied nor the individuals running the study know who is the control group and who is in the experimental group.

Descriptive statistics

statistical procedures that organize and summarize research data.

Arithmetic mean

an average that calculated by adding up a set of quantities and dividing the sum by the total number of quantities in the set.

Significance test

statistical tests that show how likely it is that a studys results occurred merely by chance.

Informed consent

anyone who participates in a human study must do so voluntarily and be well informed.

Lucid dreams

dreams in which the dreamer is aware of dreaming.

Psychoactive drugs

drugs capable of influencing perception, mood, cognition, or behavior.

Stimulants

drugs that speed up activity in the central nervous system.

Depressants

drugs that slow activity in the central nervous system.

opiates

drugs, derived from the opium poppy, that relieve pain and commonly produce euphoria.

Psychedelic drugs

consciousness- altering drugs that produce hallucinations, change thought processes, or disrupt the normal perception of time and space.

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