New Testament Background (NT BIB1120)

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Religious & Philosophical Movements

Pharisees

separated ones

Pias Ones

Pharisees

oral traditions of the rabbis

Pharisees

came mostly from the middle class

Pharisees

Many Scribes

were Pharisees

only accepted the authority of the law of Moses

Sadducees

rejected supernatural ideas

Sadducees

disappeared from history, in 70 A.D.

Sadducees

grew out of the Hasidim

Essenes

Many scholars believe that they were the religious group that produced the Dead Sea Scrolls

Essenes

Jewish revolutionaries; dedicated overthrow Roman rule

Zealots

descendants of those from the northern kingdom of Israel

Samaritans

ethnically and religiously segregated

Samaritans

own version of the Pentateuch

Samaritans

were the masses of common people in Israel

people of the land

no formal membership

people of the land

Pharisees looked down on

people of the land

Jews were those who lived outside of the land of Israel

Jews of the diaspora

retained both their Jewish faith and Jewish culture

Hebraists

retained their Jewish faith, but took on Greek culture

Hellenists

most famous Hellenistic Jew

Philo of Alexandria

center of Jewish life

synagogue

1st general observation of the Jewish World

the people were devoted to one God and to his law

2nd general observation of the Jewish World

Many Jews longed for a Messiah

3rd general observation of the Jewish World

Most Jews were influenced by Greek culture

4th general observation of the Jewish World

Before the destruction of the temple, Judaism was diverse.

were no longer received received religious devotion from most people

the old gods

usually included a basic myth, public festivals, and secret initiations and rites

Mystery religions

Demeter, Isis, Dionysus, Cybele, and Mithra

Mystery religions

more popular gods in the 1st century (e.g.. god of healing)

Asclepius

considered a patriotic duty, a pledge of allegiance

emperor worship

Philosophy: pleasure

Epicureanism

Philosophy: fate

Stoicism

Philosophy: personal freedom, ridiculed

Cynicism

Philosophy: individual truth

Skepticism

material world was evil; spiritual world was good

Gnosticism

person at death move from earth to heaven...secret knowledge and passwords

Gnosticism

were full converts

Gentile proselytes

practiced Judaism...unwilling to undergo the full law

God-fearers

1st general observation of the Gentile World

people were ready for change

2nd general observation of the Gentile World

people cared about their personal destiny

3rd general observation of the Gentile World

people were becoming less ethnic and more universal in their religious beliefs

4th general observation of the Gentile World

people saw little need to be devoted to just one god

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