signed by Spain and Portugal 1494, divided world along imaginary N-/S- line. Spain could claim land west of the line if it wasn't already Christian, and Portugal could do the same for land east of the land
Treaty of Tordesillas -
largest group of ppl coming are slaves. Others are Protestants (trying to start new life), etc.
Migrants to the New World -
1756-1763; aka French and Indian War aka "the great war for empire". British and French are main fighters (although most of the other trading countries are involved). Britain wins and win Canada, Great Lakes area, India → est hegemony, start of British Empire
Seven Year's War -
Russia explores by land bc their sea ports are frozen, explore Siberia looking for animal furs. Vitus Bering discovers and sails through the Bering Strait.
Russia in Siberia -
Muslim traveler w/ legal credentials, often found govt positions in lands he visited and strictly enforced Islamic laws. Starts in Africa, visits all the way to China, and Spain
Ibn Battuta -
busy port city in Philippines, when Legazpi took over Philippines in name of King Philip II of Spain, Manila became Spanish trading center in Asia. Chinese merchants occupied a specially designated commercial district of the city bc they were so prominent, supplying the silk. Spanish ship things in Manila galleons. Chinese succeed so much that Spanish and Filipino residents massacred them in 6 diff times, but Spanish still relied on wealth that Chinese brought to Manila.
Dias rounds Cape of Good Hope at tip of Africa (1488). Vasco da Gama sails into Indian Ocean Basin and sets up trading points (1497). Magellan sails around the world, but doesn't make it alive (1519-1522); discovers Strait of Magellan at tip of S- America; sails in service of Spain though. In general, the Portuguese set up tons of trading posts in Asia and Africa. Afonso d'Alboquerque forced all merchant ships to buy passes and present them at trading posts, w/o the passes ships would be confiscated and violators would be executed or hands chopped off. This...didn't always work, bc Portuguese navy not really that good
Portuguese in Asia -
1497, 1st to reach India going up the coast of Africa, make it to India, traded w/ India to get cinnamon and pepper. Portuguese brag about reaching India so Spain wants to do it too
Vasco da Gama -
idea that a country is only as rich as the amount of gold that they have; must have colonies bc they're markets for your goods; you want to export more than you import
strong winds blow in Atlantic and Pacific, create giant circular patterns N- and S- of equator, ocean currents similar
Wind Wheels -
triangular, used to capture crosswinds
Lateen sails -
simplified version of what the Greeks and Persians used to find latitude by measuring of angle of sun or pole star above horizon; replaced by cross staffs ands black staffs
1) want find way to trade w/ Asia w/o going through Muslims bc Muslims don't like them anymore after the Crusades. 2) find land for cultivate cash crops. 3) expand Christianity.
Reasons for European exploration -
aka Prince Henry the Navigator; started a navigational school, did a little bit of exploring himself (found Strait of Gibraltar)
Prince Henry of Portugal -
Muslim Chinese eunuch navy admiral; organized 7 navy expeditions (1405-1433)that explore all the way into the Indian Ocean (want impose imperial control over foreign trade w/ China and also to impress foreigners w/ power, maybe want extend tributary system (Chinese get foreign ppl to give them stuff?)). Mostly diplomatic when trading, but was violent if needed. Ming emperors ended it bc Confucian ministers (who didn't like Zheng He) convinced the emperors that the $ would be better put to use for agric- or military bc of Mongol threat in N-W-
Zheng He -
linear perspective to get 3D effect; emotions and human muscles in natural poses to get realistic look (realism); drew from classical Greek and Roman instead of medieval (Greco-Roman culture)
Renaissance painting's key features -
begin in ITALY!
Renaissance begins where
Catholilc Kings Fernando and Isabel, Christians reconquered Spanish Muslim Granada and made it Christian, also seized most of Italy
Reconquista in Spain -
split up into several powerful states. Mostly England trying to take over French land in 100 Years' War (1337-1453). State-building resulted from dvlping new sources of $ (usually by taxing ppl) and having large standing armies (supported by state funds)
Powerful states in Europe -
lots of dead ppl. Economic decline, social unrest; peasants get higher wages
Results of the bubonic plague -
Mongols; spread by fleas on rats
Origins of the bubonic plague -
Muslims introduced it, by 1100 cotton fabrics were popular w/ rich or ruling; cotton grew well in savannas. 1500 → now main textile
Cotton in West Africa -
17 yrs old, served in court of Kubilai Khan (Yuan dynasty), spent 20 yrs traveling all over empire, China has cool stuff!
Marco Polo in China -
inspires the whole exploration, bc he tells everyone what the Asians have; may be exaggerated; began when, upon his return to Venice, a Genoan (rival trade city) soldier arrested him. Put in prison and regaled prisoners w/ stories, then made book.
Marco Polo's stories -
Spanish galleons are dominating Pacific and trade Chinese luxury goods for American raw materials
Spanish galleons are dominating Pacific and trade
trade btwn Europe, Africa, N/S America → English give N/S America horses, cattle, etc. N/S America gave English tomatoes, potatoes, maize, beans, etc. They get African slaves. Disease also exchanged (New World gets smallpox and more from Europe). Popu- in Europe grows, but popu- in New World decreases 90%. However, the world popu- grows bc of introduction of new food sources.
Columbian Exchange -
Russians in Siberia want
Dutch trade w/
is first, and then everybody else establishes one too.
Dutch United East India Company (VOC)
major naval commander, sets up trading posts, violators that were messing up the trade had their hands amputated. Dutch have barely any land, explore to prove themselves and get more land.
English man, sails through Pacific Ocean to Hawaii, discovers Australia.
James Cooke -
finds Pacific Ocean while searching for gold in Panama.
Magellan's boat and crew make it all the way around the world (Magellan doesn't bc he died on the way).
reaches the New World and is a total jerk to the natives there (does it 3 times).
rounds the Cape of Good Hope at the tip of Africa and makes it to the Indian Ocean Basin, very difficult bc there's all these currents and winds there.
1488 Dias -
learning how to use the winds to navigate the seas.
Volta do Mar -
Chinese rudder, triangular lateen sails, magnetic compass, astrolabe.