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Material for Exam 1

Nutritional/Environmental Imbalances

Calories, water, sunlight, vitamin/minerals

Koch's Postulates

A set of rules developed for establishing the relationship between a cause and a disease (4 total)

Koch's Postulate Rule 1

The agent must be present in every case of disease

Koch's Postulate Rule 2

The agent must not be found in cases of other diseases

Koch's Postulate Rule 3

The agent must reproduce the disease when introduced into experimental animals

Koch's Postulate Rule 4

The agent must be recoverable from experimentally infected animals

Causes of Disease

Primary, Secondary and Predisposing

Primary Cause of Disease

The principal factor

Secondary Cause of Disease

Supplemental or contributory factors

Predisposing Cause of Disease

Render the animal more susceptible to a specific disea without actually causing it

Factors Contributing to Disease

Degree of exposure and condition of animal/environment

Exposure to Disease Examples

Contaminants/Physical agents (radiation, poisons), dose dependent and infectous agents

Resistance

Innate vs. acquired; greater exposure means greater chance defense mechanisms will fail; compromised individuals will have lowered resistance

Etiology

What caused the disease

Pathogenesis

Sequence of event s that produce the lesions

Causes of Cellular Injury

Hypoxia, physical agents, chemical agents, drugs, infectious agents, immunologic reactions and genetic derangements

Hypoxia

Can cause cell injury; inadequate blood oxygenation; loss of O2 carrying capacity

Physical Agents

Can cause cell injury; examples are trauma, heat and cold

Infectious Agents

Can cause cell injury; examples are viruses, bacteria, fungi and parasites

Immunologic Reactions

Can cause cell injury; inflammation - responses to infections that cause collateral damage

Genetic Derangements

Can cause cell injury; alterations in chromosome number, gene mutations

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