Strategies of Communication (4)
1) Rejection: we try to reject communication by making it clear to the other person we're not interested in communicating
2) Acceptance: Decide to accept communication - involves operating w./ law of least effort.
3) Disqualification: We contradict ourselves, switch subjects, hope they give up.
4) Symptom as communication: We'd like to talk but we're tired, nervous, sick..alcohol..can't communicate.
Content and Relationship Dimensions of Interaction
1) Content: the information or the data level; it describes the behavior expected as a response.
2) Relationship: indicates how the exchange is to be interpreted; it signals what one person thinks of the other.
Close the door directive
The content asks the receiver to perform a certain action (can be a plea, command, request..)
Responses to our actions (3)
1) Confirmation: We confirm others' self definitions and thus treat others how we think they want to be
2) Rejection: We reject their self-definitions, simply refuse to accept their beliefs about themselves.
3) Disconfirmation: Don't offer any clues that they were performing well. They don't exist. We just don't care enough.
A system of knowledge, beliefs, values, customs, behaviors, and artifacts that are acquired, shared, and used by members during daily living
someone who enters into relationships w other people
Kinds of communication (5)
Intrapersonal: W/ ourself
Small-group: One-to-a few
Mass communication: Shared across great distances w potentially large audiences thru a tech device or mass medium
The deliberate or accidental transfer of meaning
Components of interpersonal communication (7)
People: Senders: people who encode msg. Receivers: ppl who decode message
Messages: Content of communicative act
Channels: Messages are sent thru verbal/non modes
Noise: Interfering msgs.
Feedback: Tells us how we're coming across. Positive: encourages us to continue behaviors. Negative, extinguishes. ..............internal: feedback we give ourselves. external: from others
Effect: Can be emo, phys, cognitive, combo on self
Models of communication (2)
1) Gamble and gamble: Circle, and sending and receiving responsibilities are shared by the communicators
2) Dance: Spiral. Represents way communication evolves or progresses in a person from birth to present.
Functions of communication (4)
1) Self-other understanding
2) Meaningful relationships
3) Influence and persuasion
4) Career development
Exaggerated claims about the effects tech have on society
The recognition and valuing of diffs encompassing various factors
Persons respectful of and engaged w people from distinctly diff cultures
Composed of members of the same general culture who differs in some ethnic..
Functions of Communication (5)
1) Meet our social needs
2) To maintain and develop our sense of self
3) To exchange info
4) To develop/ruin relationships
5) To influence others
Strategy approaches to culture (3)
1) Separation: Co-culture members use to resist interacting w/ members of the dominant culture
2) Assimilation: Co-culture members attempt to fit in w/ members of dominant culture ---> Aggressive and often confrontational
3) Accommodation: Co-culture members maintain their cultural identity while striving to establish relationships w/ dominant culture ---> Assertive
A group whose members feel like outsiders
Types of communication approaches
2) Assertive: Seek to realize and meet objectives
3) Aggressive: Hurtfully expressive
4) Confrontational: Communicate in a way in which it's impossible not to be heard
The tendency to see your own culture as superior to others
Opposite of ethnocentrism. Acceptance of other cultures as equal and of value to one's own
Cultural pluralism: Adherence to the principle of cultural relativism. Advocate respect for uniqueness, tolerance, for diffs, and adherence to the principle of cultural relativity.
History of cultural ****
Now.. intercultural communication.
Then, melting pot philosophy: The view that diff cultures should be assimilated into dominant culture.
Variables used to distinguish cultures
1) individualism vs. collectivism
3) power distance
Mental images/pictures we carry. We carry shortcuts. Guide our reactions to others
Describes how we feel about a group of ppl whom we don't personally know
Ability to reflect on and monitor one's own behavior
Self identity, your perceived self
1) Self-image: your mental picture of yourself, the kind of person you perceive yourself to be
2) Self-esteem: your self assessment. Evaluation of ability and worth and indicates how well you like and value yourself.
Chris Mruk 5 dimensions of self esteem
1) Your beliefs about your ability to be effective
5) Stability or change
Forces that converge to create self concept (4)
1) Images other ppl have of you
2) The way you expect and evaluate yourself
3) The roles you perform
4) The media msgs your absorb
Exhibiting an individualistic orientation
A collectivist orientation
States that a persons own distinctive traits are more salient to him/her than the more prevalent traits possessed by others in the immediate env. (You're more mindful)
The Johari Window
A model containing 4 panes that's used to exp the roles that self-awareness and self-disclosure play. Diff kinds of info for each.
2) Blind area: known to others not you
3) hidden area: known to self not others
4) unknown area
The creation of a positive image designed to influence others
High self monitors
People highly attuned to impression management efforts
Low self monitors
People who pay little attention to responses others have to them
General purposes of speech (3)
Inform persuade, entertain
Specific purpose statement and descriptor and summary of topic
Criteria for a good thesis statement (4)
Not a question
Avoid figurative language
Not vague/too general