Overview of the Science of Nutrition

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Nutrients

Substances obtained from food and used in the body to promote growth, maintenance, and repair

6 Classes of Nutrients

1. Carbohydrate
2. Fat
3. Protein
4. Vitamins
5. Minerals
6. Water

Essential Nutrients

Nutrients that must be obtained from food because the body can't make it

Energy (Calorie)-Yielding Nutrients

1. Carbohydrate
2. Fat
3. Protein

Nutrients that don't yield energy

1. Water
2. Vitamins
3. Minerals

Number of calories 1 gram of carbohydrate contains

4

Number of calories 1 gram of fat contains

9

Number of calories 1 gram of protein contains

4

Number of calories 1 gram of alcohol contains

7

Function of Vitamins and Minerals

Regulate the release of energy and other aspects of metabolism

Function of water in the body

Provides the medium for life processes

Relationship between diet and the leading causes of death

Leading causes of death are chronic diseases (instead of infectious diseases), all of which have dietary components

Malnutrition

Any condition caused by an excess, deficiency, or imbalance of calories or nutrients

Overnutrition

Calorie or nutrient overconsumption severe enough to cause disease or increased risk of disease; form of malnutrition

Examples of Malnutrition

Starvation
Obesity
Deficiency disease (like Pellagra)

Degenerative Disease

Chronic disease characterized by deterioration of the body organs as a result of misuse and neglect

Healthy People 2020

National health promotion and disease prevention agenda for 2010 to 2020; goals focus on risk reduction, and specifies targets for nutrient and food intake

Hunger

The physiological need for food

Appetite

The psychological desire to eat, often but not always accompanied by hunger

Factors affecting food choices

Taste
Positive associations (social gatherings, celebrations)
Psychological needs (cravings)
Availability (stores nearby)
Income and food prices
Convenience (what is fast, ready-to-eat)
Advertising and the media (commercials, news)
Social and cultural factors
Religion

Social Groups

Group of people, such as a family, who depend on one another and share a set of norms, beliefs, values, and behaviors

Culture

Knowledge, beliefs, customs, laws, morals, art, and literature acquired by members of a society and passed along to succeeding generations.

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