This society migrate to Tula from northwest Mexico and tapped the Tula River to irrigate crops. At its high point, the society was a compact regional empire that maintained a large powerful army and campaigned in central Mexico. They exacted tribure from subject people. The capital at Tula became an important center for weaving, pottery, and obsidian work, an imported luxury goods from elsewhere in Mesoamerica. They maintained close relations with Gulf coast and Mayan societies. Conflicts between ethnic groups led to the collapse of the empire in 1175.
This society dominated the alliance that built the Aztec empire. Their capital was founded at Tenochtitlan on an island in Lake Texico. In the 15th century they overcame their neighbors and demanded tribute. They then launched campaigns of imperial expansion in Oaxaca, the Gulf, and plateau cities. They then formed a triple alliance with the Texcoco and Tlacopan and imposed their rule on most of Mesoamerica. The social structure was a rigid hierarchy based on military skill and experience, and most of the military elite were aristocrats. Warriors were given wealth, honor, land grants, and tribute. The best warriors formed a council that elected rulers, discussed political issues, and held government positions. While the elite dressed extravagantly, commoners were required by law to dress simply. Priests made up an elite class.
The capital of the Mexica empire, founded on an island in Lake Texico. Its location provided resources and conditions for chinampa, and also provided natural protection.
This system of agriculture involved dredging fertil muck in lakes to build small plots of land to cultivate. These were extremely fertil and allowed for higher crop yields (Mexica).
The empire formed by an alliance between the Mexica, Texcoco, and Tlacopan. It held control over most of Mesoamerica. This empire exacted tribute from thier subjects in the form of food crops and manufactored items. Some merchants were entrusted to exchange tribute items in distant lands for other products. The local government and collection of tribute was left to the local people, and military forces could be assembled when needed (no standing army).
While they had role in politics, women had influence within the family and were highly honored as mothers of warriors. They couldn't inherit property or hold government positions, and were under the authority of fathers and husbands. All (besides those in temples) were required to marry and were taught that their principal function was to bear children. They also raised children and prepared food, and were prominent in the marketplace and sewing.
These people made up their own elite class in Mexica society, and were educated in calendar and ritual lore, presided over religious ceremonies, read omens, and explained the forces of the world.
Groups of families in Mexica communities that claim common ancestrage. They allocated land to commoners to cultivate.
Most commoners worked on chinampas and were allocated land by calpulli. They also sometimes worked on lands of elites and contributed labor to public work. Slaves were usually domestic servants.
The principal gods this society adopted from the region were Tezcatliopaca (giver and taker of life, patron diety of warriors) and Quetzalcoatl (arts, crafts, agriculture). They believed that the gods set the world in motion through acts of individual sacrifice, and that their blood allowed the earth to build crops. They honored deities through the act of bloodletting. Priests presided over sacrifical killings of human victems to show devotion to the god Huitzilopchtli (patron god of warriors, sacrifice to keep him appeased). Those sacrificed were usually Mexica criminals, tribute, or those captured during battle.
Pueblo and Navajo
Two societies in southwest North America. They topped rivers to irrigate maize crops and cultivated beans, squashes, and sunflowers, and also ate wild plants and small game. They began constructing permanent buildings around 700.
These Native Americans lived east of the Mississippi, and cultivated maize and beans. The five nations of this tribe are the Mohawk, Oneida, Onandaga, Cayuga, and Seneca. Women were in charge of villages and households and supervised the cultivation of fields. Men mainly hunted, fished, and fought in wars.
An extreamly large mound structure in the northeastern North American woodlands. It may have served as a stage for rituals, a platform for dwellings, or a burial site.
A society that dominated the highland region around Lake Titicaca in South America. It depended mainly on the cultivation of potatoes and herding alpaca and llama. This society traded for maize and coca leaves from lower valley societies.
A society that presided in the lowlands by the Peruvian coast. It was a thriving society, and had irrigation networks, abundant yeilds of maize and sweet potato, and distinctions between social classe. Their capital city was at Chanchan, and individual clans supervised local affairs and coordinated with other clans.
This South American empire origionally settled around Lake Titicaca. The ruler Pachacuti ("Earthshaker") launched a series of military campaigns, and by the late 15th century had an empire that extended from Quito to Santiago. Pachacuti ruled as a military and administrative elite, and sought to encourage obedience by taking hostages from the ruling class of conquered people and forcing them to live in the capital. He sent loyal subjects tp conquered people who were restless and established them in garrisons. Rebel people were forced to resettle. Pachacuti also established an administation and implimenented taxes to support it and the rulers. He created an extensive road network.
An array of small cords of various colors and lengths suspended from a large, thick cord. A series of knot were tied to help remember certain types of information (such as population, economic information). They were mainly used by bureaucrats and administrators.
The administrative, religious, and ceremonial center fo the Inca empire. Permanent residents were usually high imperial administrators, rulers and high nobility, high priests of various cults, and hostages of conquered people.
A well constructed extensive road system throughout the empire that was used for communication and rapid movement of armies. There was a corps of official runners to carry messages and obtain items from rulers.