movement that began in Protestant churches in the late nineteenth century to apply the teachings of the Bible to the problems of the industrial age; led by Washington Gladden and Walter Rauschenbusch, it aroused the interest of many clergymen in securing social justice for the urban poor. The thinking of Jane Addams, Theodore Roosevelt, Woodrow Wilson, and other secular reformers was influenced by the movement as well.
the idea that churches should address social issues, predicting that socialism would be the logical outcome of Christianity
a charitable and religious organization to evangelize and to care for the poor and homeless
This welfare organization came to the US from England in 1880 and sought to provide food, shelter, and employment to the urban poor while preaching temperance and morality
United States journalist who exposes in 1906 started an era of muckraking journalism (1866-1936), Writing for McClure's Magazine, he criticized the trend of urbanization with a series of articles under the title Shame of the Cities.
He wrote "In His Steps," a book that urged people to follow Jesus' example.
Lead the Social Gospel Movement. Worked in NYC's Hell's Kitchen and wrote several books urging organized religions to take up the cause of social justice.
Pope Leo XIII
pope from 1878 to 1903; his 1891 encyclical Rerum Novarum ("Of New Things") is considered the first great Catholic social justice encyclical. (p. 165)
Catholic (Catholic U prof), dignity of the people as a child of God, rights to live from this life of dignity (connect to the declaration, God given rights), right to living property (opposed to communism and socialism), right to a living wage, Minnesotan leading Catholic voice for social justice Rerum Novarum to American workers
insisting on strict rules and routine, often to the point of hindering effectiveness
economist, wrote Theory of the Leisure Class, condemned conspicuous consumerism, where status is displayed and conveyed through consumption.
Dr that revolutionized teaching of medicines-teach students in labs and clinics, not classrooms
National Association of Manufacturers
US Chambers of Commerce
National Farm Bureau Federation
Boston Marriages refers to the relationship between women who lived together, often in long-term, sometimes romantic, relationships.
groups where women discuss books and art. sometimes became reform group addressing temperance and child labor.
large movement of middle-class women organized this; groups to participate in a variety of interests and good causes; drawn farther into the public sphere when it lobbied for progressive causes such as conservation, consumer legislation, child labor laws, and other legislation benefitting children
General Federation of Women's clubs
This club was formed to coordinate the activities of local organizations and gained more than 100,000 members in nearly 500 clubs in 1892 and the clubs grew rapidly from there. The clubs often contributed to social reform.
National Association of Colored Women
A major feminist prophet during the late 19th and early 20th century. She published "WOMEN AND ECONOMICS" which called on women to abandon their dependent status and contribute more to the community through the economy. She created centralized nurseries and kitchens to help get women into the work force.
persuade cong: mother's pension + establish Children's Bureau i labor department
ally w/ WTUL
National American Women Suffrage Association
Formed in 1890 and united 2 major women's suffrage groups at that time discrimination, and recognition of human brotherhood, organization formed by Elizabeth Cady Stanton and others to promote the vote for women
-IL=1st state in E to allow women suffrage (later NY + MI)
-1920: ratifcation of 19th amend. guarantee political rights to women throughout nation
-To some women victory=less complete-> Alice Paul (head of militant National Women's Party) accept conservative "separate sphere" justification for suffrage-women need more than 19th amend to provide clear, legal protection of their rights + eliminate discrimination (argument found limited favor=not many favor Equal Rights Amend-suffrage lil affect
progressives require gov involvement, but fed gov=inefficient=need for reforming gov=1st need to attack political partied who control life of state (corrupt undem reactionary (examples=greenbackism + populism + mugwumps)
EMERGENCE OF SECRET BALLOT (party no control tickets (ballots) anymore-> party rule broken in 2 ways
1)increase pwr of ppl (permit em to circumvent partisan institutions + express votes directly at polls)
2)placing more pwr in hands of nonpartisan, nonelective officials, insulated from political life
Many progressives believed party rule most powerful in cities=need of municipal gov. Muckrakers mobilized urban middle-class progressives against city bosses, special interests who benefited from machine organizations, immigrant laborers
(newspapers side the ppl w/ interests= mock reformers
Commission Plan- replaced mayor and council replaced w/ nonpartisan commission. First used in Galveston, TX in 1900, others followed
City-Manager Plan (motivated to remove city gov from hands of city manager)- elected officials hired outside expert to run govt, city manager remain untainted by corruption of politics
reformers try to strengthen pwr of mayor at expense of city council
Successful reformer Cleveland Mayor TOM JOHNSON from conventional political structure controlled by progressives- fought special interests
Failure of some attacks on city boss rule led reformers to turn to state govt for change- state-level progressives consider state govs unfit-progressives looked to circumvent incompetent state legislatures
TWO CHANGES BY POPULISTS:
1)INITIATIVE-allowed reformers to avoid state legis by submitting new legislation directly to voters in general election
2)REFERENDUM-put actions of legislature directly to the ppl for approval
EFFORTS TO LIMIT PARTY:
3)DIRECT PRIMARY-allowed ppl instead of bosses to choose candidates (limit black voting in S)
4)RECALL-gave voters right to remove elected official thru special election
Famous state-level reformer was Gov Robert LaFollette in Wisconsin- regulated RRs, utilities, workplace, graduated taxes on inherited wealth
i)Reform did not destroy parties but led to decline in their influence- seen by decreasing voter turnout. "Interest groups" emerged from professional organizations or labor to advance own demands directly to govt, not thru party
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Government of a city, town, or village. Has an elected mayor and alderpersons or councilors who make rules called by-laws for their local area.
Union Labor Party
Building Trades Council workers in San Francisco form it=Committed to a program of reform-same as middle-class and elite progressives in the city
California reform which passed childs labor law, workers compensation law, and limitation on womens hours between 1911-1913
of Tammany Hall supported legislation for improving working conditions, protect child laborers, eliminate worst abuses of ind econ
Robert Wagner & Alfred Smith
2 Tmmany Dems from working-class backgrounds= issue pioneer laws imposing strict regulation on factory owners + establish effective mechanisms for enforcement
West progressive leaders serving in Sen
Hiram Johnson-Calif/ George Norris-Nebraska/ William Borah (Idaho)
National Association of the Advancement of the Colored Peoples
(NAACP); Founded by W.E.B Du Bois in 1910 in order to help create more social and economic opportunities for blacks
Guinn v US
1915 decision, grandfather clause was unconstitutional
Buchanon v. Worley
was a unanimous United States Supreme Court decision addressing civil government instituted racial segregation in residential areas. The Court held that a Louisville, Kentucky, city ordinance prohibiting the sale of real property to African Americans violated the Fourteenth Amendment, which protected freedom of contract.
According to W. E. B. DuBois, the ten percent of the black
population that had the talent to bring respect and equality to all blacks
1916 "The Passing of the Great Race" tied together eugenics + Nativism
including union Industrial Workers of the World (IWW) under William Haywood wanted abolition of "wage slave" system, favored use of general strike, supported unskilled workers (strong force in West)
wanted federal govt to create balance btwn need for big business and need for competition
Lawyer that argued about "curse of bigness", saw it as threat to efficiency and freedom, limited individual control of own destiny
He thought the government should help small businesses.
Others believed combinations sometimes helped efficiency, therefore govt should distinguish btwn "good" and "bad" trusts to protect against abuses by "bad" concentrations. Supported by "nationalist" Herbert Croly in 1909 The Promise of American Life
"The Promise of American Life",
He favored the regulation of trusts and labor unions with a strong national government
A city's government would be divided into several departments, which would each be placed under the control of an expert commissioner.
Prohibited the manufacture, sale, and distribution of alcoholic beverages
Passed in 1913, this amendment to the Constitution calls for the direct election of senators by the voters instead of their election by state legislatures.
Department of Commerce and Labor
President Theodore Roosevelt's plan for reform; all Americans are entitled to an equal opportinity to succeed
Robert La Follete
In Wiconsin, he began his political career as a loyal Republican. He served as a county district attorney and as a member of Congress. He signaled his break with the party machine by refusing a bribe from a party boss. He also backed a reform program - the Wisconsin Idea. First, he called for a direct primary. He urged the state legislature to increase taxes on railroads and public utilities and to create commissions to regulate these companies in the public interest.
Natural Resource Policy
Pres support public reclamation + irrigation proj
oldest and largest grassroots environmental organization in the United States. It was founded on May 28, 1892 in San Francisco, California by the well-known conservationist and preservationist John Muir, who became its first president. The Sierra Club has hundreds of thousands of members in chapters located throughout the US, and is affiliated with Sierra Club Canada.
A political and social movement that seeks to protect natural resources including plant and animal species as well as their habitat for the future. The early conservation movement included fisheries and wildlife management, water, soil conservation and sustainable forestry.
growing recognition of effects of western settlement on the natural beauty of the environment; the unique region had not been destroyed by human settlement
teddy roosevelt creates national parks and sets aside millions of acres for public use
National Reclamation Act
backed by Roosevelt in 1902, it provided federal funds for the construction of damns, reservoirs, and canals in the West—projects that would open new lands for cultivation and provide cheap electric power later on.
WHAT: it provided federal funds for the construction of damns, reservoirs, and canals in the West
WHERE: West US
WHY: These products would open new lands for cultivation and provide cheap electric power in the future
authorizing the use of federal funds from public lands to pay for irrigation and land development projects. It was the federal govt that began transformation of the Wests landscape
Panic of 1907
Caused by mistrust for and lowered confidence in bankers
a serious recession, proved the govt. still had little control over the industrial economy. Conservatives blamed Roosevelt's mad economic policies for the disaster, and the president disagreed, but acted quickly to reassure business leaders that he wouldn't interfere with their private recovery efforts.,
, Cavalier investing in New York caused economic downturn, many banks were forced to close. JP Morgan helped by convincing his allies to retain their stocks, stimulating the economy. Roosevelt compromised his Progressive principle and allowed Morgan's US Steel to form a trust with Tennessee Iron and Coal Company in order to keep the economy somewhat afloat.
Republican Old Guard
Taft's allies. Hated the progressive republicans.
In 1912 republican convention Taft was re nominated after being picked in 1908 by Roosevelt himself, some republican got mad and started the progressive party and they nominated Roosevelt the democrats were able to win because of the split, Wilson won. Wilson was barely re-elected in 1916
Wilson's appointment to Supreme Ct. who became the first ever Jew to serve on the bench
Federal Reserve Act
Legislation designed to stabilize the currency in the US. It split the US into 12 regions with one Federal bank in each region that could issue money under the authority of the Federal Reserve Board. It gave the government the ability to quickly increase the amount of money in circulation when needed.
Prohibited the sale of interstate commerce goods produced by children
Smith Lever Act
The Smith-Lever Act, enacted in 1914, created a system of agricultural extension work funded by federal grants. Students not in college benefited because they were taught agricultural skills by county agents. It was part of the governments plan to encourage a growth in American agriculture.
The name given to the political process in which the general public votes on an issue of public concern.
Curse of bigness
Louis D. Brandeis's idea that the American government must regulate competition to prevent large combinations and trusts.