Chapter 1 Terms - Mental Health and Mental Illness

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Foundations of Mental Health Nursing, A Clinical Approach. 6th ed Elizabeth M. Varcarolis Voice, audio, audiobook, Saunders

Advanced Practice Registered Nurse, Psychiatric Mental Health

A licensed RN with a master of science or Doctor of Nursing practice in Psychiatric nursing.

Basic Level Registered Nurse, RN

Any nurse with basic training, a diploma, associate degree, or baccalaureate degree in nursing., completed nursing program, state licesure and qualified to work in most any general or speciality area.

Clinical Epidemiology

broad term that addresses what happens after patients are seen by providers

Co-morbid Condition

A condition that occurs along with another disorder.

Diagnostic And Statistical Manual Of Mental Disorders, Fourth Edition, DSM 4

A classification of mental disorders that includes descriptions of diagnostic categories. The DSM 4 is the most widely accepted system of classifying abnormal behaviors used in the United States today.

Electronic Health Care, E H C

The provision of health care through methods which are not face-to-face but rather through an electronic medium.

Epidemiology

The quantitative study of the distribution of mental disorders in human populations.

Evidence-Based Practice

Care based on the collection, interpretation, and integration of valid, important, and applicable patient-reported, clinician-observed, and research-derived evidence.

Incidence

Refers to the number of new cases of mental disorders in a healthy population within a given period of time. For example, the number of New York City adolescents who were diagnosed with major depression between 2000 and 2010.

Mental Health Continuum

A conceptual line used to represent levels of mental health and mental illness that vary from person to person and vary for a particular person over time.

Mental Illness

A clinically significant behavioral or psychological syndrome marked by the patient's distress, disability, or the risk of suffering disability or loss of freedom.

Nursing Intervention Classification, N I C

A listing of research-based nursing intervention labels that provide standardization of expected nursing interventions.

Nursing Outcomes Classification, N O C

A classification system which defines and describes patient outcomes to nursing interventions.

Phenomena Of Concern

The central interests of a particular discipline. In nursing they are commonly considered to be person, health, environment, and nursing.

Prevalence

Describes the total number of cases, new and existing, in a given population during a specific period of time. Example: the number of adolescents who screen positive for major depression in New York City schools between 2000 and 2010

Psychiatric Mental Health Nursing, P M H N

This specialty area in nursing and core mental health profession promotes mental health through the nursing process in the treatment of mental health problems and psychiatric

Psychiatry's Definition Of Mental Health

Evolves over time and is shaped by the prevailing culture and societal values. Reflects changes in cultural norms, society's expectations, and political climates.

Registered Nurse-Psychiatric Mental Health, R N, P M H

A nursing graduate who possess a diploma, AA, or BA and chooses to work in the specialty of psychiatric mental health nursing.

Resilience

The ability to adapt and cope, which helps people to face tragedies, loss, trauma, and severe stress.

Global Assessment of Functioning

A 0 to 100 rating of a person, with more severe disorders indicated by lower numbers and more effective functioning by higher numbers

Electronic Health Record

A long-term accumulation of a patient's health care information from a many different of providers.

10 Fundamental Components of the Recovery process

Self directed, Individule and person centered, Empowering, Holistic, Nonlinear, Strength Bases, Peer supported, Respect, Responsibility, Hope.

Diathesis-Stress Model

Suggests that a person may be predisposed for a mental disorder that remains unexpressed until triggered by stress or trauma. This is the most accepted explanition for mental illness.

Mental Health Consumer

Groups of people with mental illnesses.

Decade of the Brain

•1990 - 2000 by Pres. George H. W. Bush
•Years dedicated to new studies & to make legislation/general public aware of advances that were made in neuroscience/brain research

Traits of Mental Health

Think rationally, most of the time.
Communicate appropriately.
Learn - frontal lobe working properly.
Grow emotionally.
Resilient.
Healthy self-esteem.

Mental Health

a state of well-being in which each individual is able to realize his or her own potential, cope with the normal stresses of life, work productively and fruitfully, and make a contribution to the community.

Culture-Bound Syndromes

Occur in specific sociocultural contexts and are easily recognized by people in those cultures.

Running Amok

a culture-bound syndrome of Southeast Asia, in which a person, usually a male, runs around engaging in furious, almost indiscriminate violent behavior.

Pibloktoq

an uncontrollable desire to tear off one's clothing and expose oneself to severe winter weather, is a recognized psychological disorder in parts of Greenland, Alaska, and the Artic regions

Recovery

The fact that some people, even those with the most serious illnesses, such as schizophrenia, will recover. A consumer-focused process, in which people are able to live, work, learn, and participate fully in their communities.

Why is it important to recognize & treat mental illnesses early?

Because with each "episode", the risk goes up 50% that they will have another episode

Diathesis

A biological predisposition to a disorder. Also known as vulnerability. A diathesis only causes abnormal behavior when it is combined with a stress or challenging experience.

National Alliance on Mental Health (NAMI)

•1979 - Formed by people w/ mental illness & their families.
•1980's - Group began resisting traditional "paternalistic" mental health care providers who dictated care & treatment

New Freedom Commission on Mental Health

2003 - Release of recommendations for mental health care in America. Called for a streamlined system. Advocated for Early diagnosis and treatment, New expectation for principles of recovery, Increased assistance in helping people find housing & work.

Parity

functional equality

Epidemiologists

Identify high-risk groups, and high-risk factors associated with illness onset, duration, & recurrence.

Examples of high-risk groups associated w/ illness onset, duration, & recurrence.

•Kids facing traumatic experiences at young age.
•Genetic predisposition

Examples of high-risk factors associated w/ illness onset, duration, & recurrence are.

•Old treatments
•Poverty
•Isolation

In the DSM 4, mental disorders are MANIFESTATIONS of a dysfunction of an individual's.

behavior, psychology, and biology.

In the D S M 4, mental disorders are ASSOCIATED with?

Distress or painful symptom.
Disability of important areas of function.
High risk of suffering death, pain, disability, or loss of freedom.

The D S M 4 classifies what?

the disorder not the person.

Axis 1

Mental disorder that is the focus of treatment; refers to a collection of s/s that together constitute a particular disorder. Example: Major depressive disorder

Axis 2

Personality disorders & mental retardation. Example: Dependent personality disorder

Axis 3

General medical conditions relevant to the mental disorder on Axis 1. Example: Diabetes

Axis 4

Psychosocial & environmental problems. Example: relationship failing, job loss, finances. 300 to 500 means high stress.

Axis 5

The Global Assessment of Functioning Score, or G A F Score. Example: 31; unable to work or respond to family & friends.

The Main Personality Disorders are

Obsessive-Compulsive, Narcissistic, Histrinic, Paranoid, Boarderline, Dependent, Schizoid, Anxious or Avoidant, Schizotypal, and Antisocial.

Nursing Intervention

any treatment based upon clinical judgment and knowledge that a nurse performs to enhance patient/client outcomes

I C D-10

International classification of diseases
•Clinical descriptions of mental & behavior disorders
•Divided into 10 disease categories

Nursing Diagnosis

This is a clinical judgment about individual, family, or community responses to actual or potential health problem/life processes. It provides the basis for selection of nursing interventions to achieve outcomes for which the nurse is accountable.

A well defined nursing diagnosis provides the framework for

Identifying appropriate nursing interventions for dealing w/ the patients reaction to the disorder

Basic Level Psych RN interventions

•Health teaching andmaintenance
•Milieu therapy
•Pharmacological, biological & integrative therapies

Psych nurse advanced practice interventions

Basic interventions plus Med Rx's and treatment, hospital admitting, Psychotherapy, Consultation-sharing clinical expertise with nurses or other health care professionals to enhance the treatment of patients

Case Management

Coordinate patient care provided to individuals, their families, and significant other on a continuum and to provide efficient transitions to services that may be needed after discharge at home, in clinics, or other health care facilities.

Community nursing centers

Centered on low cost by providing care in established community buildings. The focus is on wellness and ease of accessible within the community. Serves low-income and uninsured people as long as they can secure funding.

Cultural Competence

Sensitivity to different cultural views reguarding health, illness, and response to treatment.

Patient Advocate

an individuale who speaks for the patient and protects their rights

Stigma

a powerfully negative label that greatly changes a person's self-concept and social identity

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