Chapter 2 Bio Key Terms

41 terms by sophiotho

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Animalia

Eukaryotic, plasma membrane, nuclear membrane, multiple linear chromosomes, endoplasmic reticulum, Golgi apparatus, mitochondria, ribosomes, centrioles, cilia/flagella present in some.

autoradiography

Tissue is stained with a radioactively labelled substance, the tissue is fixed, embedded and sectioned. It is visualised by placing sections against very high resolution photographic film. Label emits beta particles which produce a grain of silver on the film, seen as a black dot when the film is developed. Tissues are stained for normal light or electron microscopes.

autotroph

Organism that can make its own organic molecules - including glucose - from inorganic molecules; including photosynthetic and chemosynthetic organisms.

bacteriophage

Viruses that infect bacteria (means 'bacteria eater')

cell

Cells are the functional units of organisms. All organisms are composed of cells and the products of cells. All cells come from pre-existing cells. The cell is the smallest living organisational unit.

cell membrane

(also called the plasma membrane) separates the cell's contents from the environment.

cell theory

Based on microscopic and biochemical observations of all types of organisms. All organisms are composed of cells and the products of cells. All cells come from pre-existing cells. The cell is the smallest living organisational unit.

cell wall

Can be non-cellulose (eg. murein in Monera, chitin in Fungi) or cellulose (as in Plantae). Keeps the shape of the cell so cells can be stacked on top of each other. Protects cell from damage. Is outside the plasma membrane.

centrioles

A pair of small cylindrical structures composed of microtubules. They are involved in the separation of chromosomes during cell division in animal cells and protists. They are not found in plant cells.

chloroplast

Found in some plant cells; a green organelle (due to presence of chlorophyll) in which photosynthesis takes place. It is composed of many folded layers of membrane.

chromosome

Darkly staining structures in the nucleus that are composed largely of DNA and which carry the hereditary information of the cell in the form of genes. Found in constant numbers in body cells of a particular species.

cilia

Hairlike structures on the surfaces of some eukaryotic cells, consisting of a '9 + 2' arrangement of microtubules enclosed by an extension of the cell membrane. Cilia move with an oar-like motion and are usually shorter and more numerous than flagella.

cytoplasm

The contents of a cell, other than the nucleus. It is more than 90% water and contains ions, salts, enzymes, food molecules and the nucleus.

cytosol

The fluid component of cytoplasm, in which organelles are located.

DNA

(Deoxyribonucleic acid) Long molecule that is the carrier of genetic information in the cell; found in chromosomes.

electron microscopy

Microscopy where the object is viewed using an electron beam rather than visible light; provides much higher resolution (around 1000x greater than light microscopy)

endoplasmic reticulum

A network of intracellular membranes that links with the plasma membrane and other membranous organelles. ER may be rough (with ribosomes) or smooth (lacking ribosomes). It is involved in the production, processing, transport and storage of materials with the cell.

eukaryote

An organism with cells in which the nucleus is surrounded by a membrane, Golgi apparatus and mitochondria

flagella

Hair-like structures on the outside of the cell. Longer than cilia.

Fungi

Eukaryotic, plasma membrane, nuclear membrane, multiple linear chromosomes, endoplasmic reticulum, Golgi apparatus, mitochondria, ribosomes, vacuoles, chitin cell wall.

Golgi apparatus

A stack of flat membrane sacs where the final synthesis and packaging of proteins into membrane-bound vesicles occur before they are secreted from the cell. It is linked to the endoplasmic reticulum.

heterotroph

Organism that must obtain organic compounds by eating other organisms or their products.

light microscopy

Microscopy using visible light; includes autoradiography, fluorescence and confocal microscopy.

lysosome

Membrane-bound vesicles containing powerful enzymes that break down debris and foreign material; present in most animal cells.

mitochondrion

Organelle composed of many folded layers of membrane. Mitochondria are involved in the energy transformations that release energy for use by the cell.

Monera

Prokaryotic, plasma membrane, one circular chromosome, ribosomes, non-cellulose cell wall, cilia/flagella.

nucleoid

The portion within a prokaryotic cell where the genetic material is to be found.

nucleus

Large organelle surrounded by a double-layer membrane; contains chromosomes which control cellular activities.

ribosome

Tiny organelle located in the cytosol, sometimes associated with endoplasmic reticulum. Site of production of proteins.

organelle

Any of the specialised structures in a cell

Plantae

Eukaryotic, plasma membrane, nuclear membrane, multiple linear chromosomes, endoplasmic reticulum, Golgi apparatus, chloroplasts in some cells, mitochondria, ribosomes, large vacuole, cellulose cell wall, cilia/flagella.

plasma membrane

(Also called cell membrane) Controls the movement of substances into and out of the cell and is responsible for recognition, adhesion and chemical communication between cells.

plastid

a group of organelles, found only in plant cells, which develop from simple organelles called proplasts. Plastids include chloroplasts, amyloplasts and chromoplasts.

prion

A proteinaceous infectious particle that often causes disease; contains no nucleic acid.

prokaryote

An organism with cells that do not have a membrane surrounding the nucleus and lack most organelles. All prokaryotes are bacteria.

Protista

Eukaryotic, plasma membrane, nuclear membrane, multiple linear chromosomes, endoplasmic reticulum, Golgi apparatus, chloroplasts in many, mitochondria usually, ribosomes, centrioles in some, vacuoles, various cell walls, cilia flagella.

synchrotron

A huge structure used to accelerate electrons close to the speed of light and produce very bright synchrotron light, which is unique in its intensity and brilliance, across a wide range of the electromagnetic spectrum.

tonoplast

The vacuole membrane in plant cells; regulaets the movement of substances into and out of the vacuole.

vacuole

A membrane-bound, liquid-filled space found in most cells in variable numbers. Plant cells typically have large fluid-filled vacuoles, containing cell sap, that provide physical support through turgidity and storage. In other cells, vacuoles may be involved in intracellular digestion or water balance.

virion

A complete mature virus particle, which is metabolically inert and is the transmission phase.

virus

A microscopic non-cellular particle consisting of a DNA or RNA core with a protein coat, and perhaps a membrane envelope; able to penetrate cells, destroy them or interfere with their function, and multiply rapidly.

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